Zinc finger protein STOP1 is critical for proton tolerance in Arabidopsis and coregulates a key gene in aluminum tolerance

Satoshi Iuchi, Hiroyuki Koyama, Atsuko Iuchi, Yasufumi Kobayashi, Sadako Kitabayashi, Yuriko Kobayashi, Takashi Ikka, Takashi Hirayama, Kazuo Shinozaki, Masatomo Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

280 Citations (Scopus)


Acid soil syndrome causes severe yield losses in various crop plants because of the rhizotoxicities of ions, such as aluminum (Al3+). Although protons (H+) could be also major rhizotoxicants in some soil types, molecular mechanisms of their tolerance have not been identified yet. One mutant that was hypersensitive to H+ rhizotoxicity was isolated from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenized seeds, and a single recessive mutation was found on chromosome 1. Positional cloning followed by genomic sequence analysis revealed that a missense mutation in the zinc finger domain in a predicted Cys2His2-type zinc finger protein, namely sensitive to proton rhizotoxicity (STOP)1, is the cause of hypersensitivity to H+ rhizotoxicity. The STOP1 protein belongs to a functionally unidentified subfamily of zinc finger proteins, which consists of two members in Arabidopsis based on a Blast search. The stop1 mutation resulted in no effects on cadmium, copper, lanthanum, manganese and sodium chloride sensitivitities, whereas it caused hypersensitivity to Al3+ rhizotoxicity. This stop1 mutant lacked the induction of the AtALMT1 gene encoding a malate transporter, which is concomitant with Al-induced malate exudation. There was no induction of AtALMT1 by Al3+ treatment in the stop1 mutant. These results indicate that STOP1 plays a critical role in Arabidopsis tolerance to major stress factors in acid soils.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9900-9905
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Jun 5 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Aluminum toxicity
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • CysHis-type zinc finger protein
  • Proton-rhizotoxicity
  • Sensitive to proton rhizotoxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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