Zerumbone (ZER), a sesquiterpene from the edible plant Zingiber zerumbet Smith, has recently been found to suppress tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation in a potent manner. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive potentials of ZER in a variety of cell culture experiments. ZER effectively suppressed TPA-induced superoxide anion generation from both NADPH oxidase in dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and xanthine oxidase in AS52 Chinese hamster ovary cells. The combined lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-stimulated protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, together with the release of tumor necrosis factor-α, in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were also markedly diminished. These suppressive events were accompanied with a combined decrease in the medium concentrations of nitrite and prostaglandin E2, while the expression level of COX-1 was unchanged. ZER inhibited the proliferation of human colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines (LS174T, LS180, COLO205, and COLO320DM) in a dose-dependent manner, while the growth of normal human dermal (2F0-C25) and colon (CCD-18 Co) fibroblasts was less affected. It also induced apoptosis in COLO205 cells, as detected by dysfunction of the mitochondria transmembrane, Annexin V-detected translocation of phosphatidylserine, and chromatin condensation. Intriguingly, α-humulene, a structural analog lacking only the carbonyl group in ZER, was virtually inactive in all experiments conducted, indicating that the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group in ZER may play some pivotal roles in interactions with unidentified target molecule(s). Taken together, our results indicate that ZER is a food phytochemical that has distinct potentials for use in anti-inflammation, chemoprevention, and chemotherapy strategies.
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 8 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research