The wear mechanisms of a conventional titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V extra-low interstitial (Ti64), and a new titanium alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy (TNTZ) were studied to investigate the wear properties of a Ti64/TNTZ combination for spinal fixation devices. Balls and discs made of Ti64 and TNTZ were prepared to be used as wear-test specimens. Frictional wear tests of Ti64 and TNTZ discs were carried out against Ti64 and TNTZ balls in air using a ball-on-disc frictional wear testing system. The wear mechanisms were investigated by analysis of worn surfaces and wear debris using scanning electron microscopy. Volume losses of the TNTZ discs were found to be larger than those of the Ti64 discs, regardless of mating ball. Furthermore, the morphologies of wear tracks and debris were found to be different between TNTZ and Ti64 discs. It is considered that the wear mechanism for a Ti64 disc is oxidative wear, whereas that for a TNTZ disc is delamination wear, regardless of mating ball material.