Water exchange in manganese-based water-oxidizing catalysts in photosynthetic systems: From the water-oxidizing complex in photosystem II to nano-sized manganese oxides

Mohammad Mahdi Najafpour, Mohsen Abbasi Isaloo, Julian J. Eaton-Rye, Tatsuya Tomo, Hiroshi Nishihara, Kimiyuki Satoh, Robert Carpentier, Jian Ren Shen, Suleyman I. Allakhverdiev

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

12 Citations (Scopus)


The water-oxidizing complex (WOC), also known as the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), of photosystem II in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms efficiently catalyzes water oxidation. It is, therefore, responsible for the presence of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. The WOC is a manganese-calcium (Mn4CaO5(H2O)4) cluster housed in a protein complex. In this review, we focus on water exchange chemistry of metal hydrates and discuss the mechanisms and factors affecting this chemical process. Further, water exchange rates for both the biological cofactor and synthetic manganese water splitting are discussed. The importance of fully unveiling the water exchange mechanism to understand the chemistry of water oxidation is also emphasized here. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: Keys to Produce Clean Energy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1395-1410
Number of pages16
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2014



  • Artificial photosynthesis
  • Manganese
  • Nano-sized manganese oxide
  • Oxygenic photosynthesis
  • Photosystem II
  • Water exchange
  • Water-oxidizing complex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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