The efficiency with which volatiles are deeply subducted is governed by devolatilization histories and the geometries and mechanisms of fluid transport deep in subduction zones. Metamorphism along the forearc slab-mantle interface may prevent the deep subduction of many volatile components (e.g., H2O, Cs, B, N, perhaps As, Sb, and U) and result in their transport in fluids toward shallower reservoirs. The release, by devolatilization, and transport of such components toward the seafloor or into the forearc mantle wedge, could in part explain the imbalances between the estimated amounts of subducted volatiles and the amounts returned to Earth’s surface. The proportion of the initially subducted volatile component that is retained in rocks subducted to depths greater than those beneath magmatic arcs (> 100 km) is largely unknown, complicating assessments of deep mantle volatile budgets. Isotopic and trace element data and volatile contents for the Catalina Schist, the Franciscan Complex, and eclogite-facies complexes in the Alps (and elsewhere) provide insight into the nature and magnitude of fluid production and transport deep in subduction zones and into the possible effects of metamorphism on the compositions of subducting rocks. Compatibilities of the compositions of the subduction-related rocks and fluids with the isotopic and trace element compositions of various mantle-derived materials (igneous rocks, xenoliths, serpenti-nite seamounts) indicate the potential to trace the recycling of rock and fluid reservoirs chemically and isotopically fractionated during subduction-zone metamorphism.