Vectorial Proton Transport Mechanism of RxR, a Phylogenetically Distinct and Thermally Stable Microbial Rhodopsin

Keiichi Kojima, Tetsuya Ueta, Tomoyasu Noji, Keisuke Saito, Kanae Kanehara, Susumu Yoshizawa, Hiroshi Ishikita, Yuki Sudo

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Rubrobacter xylanophilus rhodopsin (RxR) is a phylogenetically distinct and thermally stable seven-transmembrane protein that functions as a light-driven proton (H+) pump with the chromophore retinal. To characterize its vectorial proton transport mechanism, mutational and theoretical investigations were performed for carboxylates in the transmembrane region of RxR and the sequential proton transport steps were revealed as follows: (i) a proton of the retinylidene Schiff base (Lys209) is transferred to the counterion Asp74 upon formation of the blue-shifted M-intermediate in collaboration with Asp205, and simultaneously, a respective proton is released from the proton releasing group (Glu187/Glu197) to the extracellular side, (ii) a proton of Asp85 is transferred to the Schiff base during M-decay, (iii) a proton is taken up from the intracellular side to Asp85 during decay of the red-shifted O-intermediate. This ion transport mechanism of RxR provides valuable information to understand other ion transporters since carboxylates are generally essential for their functions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number282
JournalScientific reports
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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