Background: Multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO) can achieve a desired shape for deformities of the cranium. In the past, visual estimation was used to reflect on the actual skull, but it was time-consuming and inaccurate. Here we demonstrate an effective osteotomy navigation method using surgical guides made from a dental impression silicone. Methods: Seven patients who underwent MCDO between August 2013 and September 2016 were included in the study. Five cases involved utilization of the surgical guide for osteotomy. Three-dimensional (3D) printed cranium models were made using 3D computed tomography (3DCT) imaging data and dental impression silicone sheets were molded using the printed cranium models. These surgical guides were sterilized and used for intraoperative osteotomy design. Vertical distance between nasion/porion and osteotomy lines were calculated using 3D printed cranial models and postoperative 3DCT images to assess reproducibility. Results: The average surgical time/design time was 535/37.0 minutes for the nonsurgical guide group and 486.8/11.8 minutes for the surgical guide group (SG).Treatment using the surgical guide was significantly shorter in terms of operative time and time required for design. For the vertical distance comparison, the average distance was 5.7mm (SD = 0.3) in the non-SG and 2.5mm (SD = 0.44) in the SG, and SG was more accurate. Conclusions: Shorter operative times and higher reproducibility rates could be achieved by using the proposed surgical guide, which is accurate, low-cost, and easily accessible.
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