Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is relatively rare. Although urothelial carcinomas are the fourth most common tumor, most of these are located in the urinary lower urinary tract and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) accounts for only 5 % of urothelial tumors and 8 % of renal tumors [1, 2]. In Western countries, the estimated annual incidence of UTUC is approximately 1-2 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The peak incidence occurs in people in their 70s and 80s and it is three times more prevalent in men than women. Concurrent bladder cancer is present in 8-13 % of cases. After treatment recurrent disease develops in the bladder in 15-50 % of UTUC tumor patients  (see Chap. 10). Tumors developed in the contralateral upper tract in 2-6 % of patients [4, 5].
|Title of host publication||Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing|
|Number of pages||15|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2015|
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