Under the ECM Dome: The Physiological Role of the Perinodal Extracellular Matrix as an Ion Diffusion Barrier

Yoko Bekku, Toshitaka Oohashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Enriched Na+ channel clustering allows for rapid saltatory conduction at a specialized structure in myelinated axons, the node of Ranvier, where cations are exchanged across the axon membrane. In the extracellular matrix (ECM), highly negatively charged molecules accumulate and wrap around the nodal gaps creating an ECM dome, called the perinodal ECM. The perinodal ECM has different molecular compositions in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are abundant in the ECM at the CNS nodes, whereas heparan sulfate proteoglycans are abundant at the PNS nodes. The proteoglycans have glycosaminoglycan chains on their core proteins, which makes them electrostatically negative. They associate with other ECM molecules and form a huge stable ECM complex at the nodal gaps. The polyanionic molecular complexes have high affinity to cations and potentially contribute to preventing cation diffusion at the nodes.In this chapter, we describe the molecular composition of the perinodal ECM in the CNS and PNS, and discuss their physiological role at the node of Ranvier.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-122
Number of pages16
JournalAdvances in experimental medicine and biology
Volume1190
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Diffusion barriers
Domes
Neurology
Extracellular Matrix
Ions
Cations
Peripheral Nervous System
Ranvier's Nodes
Central Nervous System
Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans
Axons
Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
Molecules
Proteoglycans
Glycosaminoglycans
Chemical analysis
Membranes
Cluster Analysis
Proteins

Keywords

  • ECM
  • Glia
  • Microenvironment
  • Node of Ranvier
  • Perinodal ECM
  • Proteoglycans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

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abstract = "Enriched Na+ channel clustering allows for rapid saltatory conduction at a specialized structure in myelinated axons, the node of Ranvier, where cations are exchanged across the axon membrane. In the extracellular matrix (ECM), highly negatively charged molecules accumulate and wrap around the nodal gaps creating an ECM dome, called the perinodal ECM. The perinodal ECM has different molecular compositions in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are abundant in the ECM at the CNS nodes, whereas heparan sulfate proteoglycans are abundant at the PNS nodes. The proteoglycans have glycosaminoglycan chains on their core proteins, which makes them electrostatically negative. They associate with other ECM molecules and form a huge stable ECM complex at the nodal gaps. The polyanionic molecular complexes have high affinity to cations and potentially contribute to preventing cation diffusion at the nodes.In this chapter, we describe the molecular composition of the perinodal ECM in the CNS and PNS, and discuss their physiological role at the node of Ranvier.",
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