Two different coronary blood flow velocity patterns in thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade 2 in acute myocardial infarction: Insight into mechanisms of microvascular dysfunction

Koichi Yamamoto, Hiroshi Ito, Katsuomi Iwakura, Shigeo Kawano, Masashi Ikushima, Tohru Masuyama, Toshio Ogihara, Kenshi Fujii

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34 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine which of the two main potential mechanisms underlying Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 2 (TIMI-2 flow) operate in an individual patient who has had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: Systolic flow reversal (SFR) is a specific finding of capillary damage, the no-reflow phenomenon. The coronary blood flow velocity (CBFV) pattern of thromboemboli, however, remains unknown. METHODS: Data on 105 patients with AMI (57 with anterior and 48 with nonanterior cases) who underwent a coronary, intervention were analyzed. The CBFV was recorded by a Doppler guide wire, and tissue perfusion was assessed with myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). RESULTS: Study patients were classified into three groups according to TIMI grade and the presence or absence of SFR: 1) TIMI-3 flow (n = 80); 2) TIMI-2 flow with SFR (SFR[+], n = 14); and 3) TIMI-2 flow without SFR (SFR[-], n = 11). Diastolic CBFV was the lowest in SFR(-) (TIMI-3 vs. SFR[+] vs. SFR[-]: 34 vs. 31 vs. 9 cm/s), and the systolic to diastolic CBFV ratio was also the highest in SFR(-) (0.43 vs. -0.18 vs. 0.66). The no-reflow phenomenon documented by MCE was found in all patients in the SFR(+) group, but in only one patient (10%) in the SFR(-) group. Intracoronary thrombus was more frequently found in SFR(-) than in SFR(+) (91% vs. 14%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: At least two different CBFV patterns are noted in patients with reperfused AMI who have TIMI-2 flow. Capillary damage is mostly responsible for SFR(+), and SFR(-) is seen in thromboemboli possibly due to increased coronary arterial resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1755-1760
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Nov 20 2002


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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