Treat-and-repair strategy is a feasible therapeutic choice in adult patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with a ventricular septal defect: Case series

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Introduction Recent advances in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-specific drugs have dramatically changed the therapeutic strategy for PAH. A strategy that includes 'treatment' with PAH-specific drugs initially and then 'repair' by closure of the cardiac defect (i.e. 'treat and repair') was devised, and has been attempted, in patients with PAH associated with a cardiac defect. Case presentation We present three cases of severe PAH associated with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) in adult patients who were initially treated with PAH-specific drugs followed by VSD closure. Two of the patients were treated with a combination of an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, and intravenous prostacyclin before VSD closure. The third patient was treated with an ERA and pulmonary artery banding before VSD closure. After 12 months of anti-PAH treatment, the pulmonary vascular resistance index and the ratio of the pulmonary vascular index to the systemic vascular resistance index decreased to levels that allowed VSD closure. At the mid- and long-term follow-up measurements after surgical closure of the VSD, the mean pulmonary artery pressure had markedly decreased. Discussion Our case series suggests that the treat-and-repair strategy is a promising approach for adult patients with severe PAH associated with VSD.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberyty033
JournalEuropean Heart Journal - Case Reports
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2018



  • Case series
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • Treat-and-repair strategy
  • Ventricular septal defect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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