Time-dependent inhibition of Bacillus stearothermophilus alanine racemase by (1-aminoethyl)phosphonate isomers by isomerization to noncovalent slowly dissociating enzyme-(1-aminoethyl)phosphonate complexes

Bernard Badet, Kenji Inagaki, Kenji Soda, Christopher T. Walsh

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Abstract

An alanine racemase encoded by a gene from the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus is overproduced to 0.3% of the soluble protein when carried on plasmid pICR4 in Escherichia coli [Inagaki, K., Tanizawa, K., Badet, B., Walsh, C. T., Tanaka, H., & Soda, K. (1986) Biochemistry (third paper of four in this issue)]. Purification of large quantities (50 mg) of racemase permits study of time-dependent inactivation by D and L isomers of the antibacterial (1-aminoethyl)phosphonate (Ala-P), the phosphonate analogue of alanine. The time-dependent activity loss by this compound now appears general to Gram-positive but not to Gram-negative racemases [Badet, B., & Walsh, C. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 1333] and is shown to occur by extremely slow dissociation of a noncovalent E·Ala-P complex. Ala-P binds initially in a weak, reversible (KI = 1 mM) competitive manner but is slowly isomerized (kinact = 6-9 min-1) to a stoichiometric enzyme complex, which in turn dissociates extremely slowly, with a half-time about 25 days. Thus, Ala-P is a slow but not a tight-binding inhibitor. The E·Ala-P complex is not reducible by borohydride but does perturb the fluorescence of bound pyridoxal 5′-phosphate coenzyme. Determination of the sequence of an active site octapeptide of the B. stearothermophilus alanine racemase shows homology with the sequence of a Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium alanine racemase that is not susceptible to time-dependent inhibition by Ala-P. Studies with Ala-P analogues suggest the phosphonate dianion is crucial for stable formation of an isomerized long-lived E·Ala-P-inhibited complex.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3275-3282
Number of pages8
JournalBiochemistry
Volume25
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1986
Externally publishedYes

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Alanine Racemase
Geobacillus stearothermophilus
Organophosphonates
Bacilli
Isomerization
Isomers
Racemases and Epimerases
Biochemistry
Enzymes
Borohydrides
Salmonella
Pyridoxal Phosphate
Coenzymes
Alanine
Escherichia coli
Purification
Bacteria
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Plasmids
Salmonella typhimurium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

@article{6af9349779ae460c9d17bf4962f9f0db,
title = "Time-dependent inhibition of Bacillus stearothermophilus alanine racemase by (1-aminoethyl)phosphonate isomers by isomerization to noncovalent slowly dissociating enzyme-(1-aminoethyl)phosphonate complexes",
abstract = "An alanine racemase encoded by a gene from the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus is overproduced to 0.3{\%} of the soluble protein when carried on plasmid pICR4 in Escherichia coli [Inagaki, K., Tanizawa, K., Badet, B., Walsh, C. T., Tanaka, H., & Soda, K. (1986) Biochemistry (third paper of four in this issue)]. Purification of large quantities (50 mg) of racemase permits study of time-dependent inactivation by D and L isomers of the antibacterial (1-aminoethyl)phosphonate (Ala-P), the phosphonate analogue of alanine. The time-dependent activity loss by this compound now appears general to Gram-positive but not to Gram-negative racemases [Badet, B., & Walsh, C. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 1333] and is shown to occur by extremely slow dissociation of a noncovalent E·Ala-P complex. Ala-P binds initially in a weak, reversible (KI = 1 mM) competitive manner but is slowly isomerized (kinact = 6-9 min-1) to a stoichiometric enzyme complex, which in turn dissociates extremely slowly, with a half-time about 25 days. Thus, Ala-P is a slow but not a tight-binding inhibitor. The E·Ala-P complex is not reducible by borohydride but does perturb the fluorescence of bound pyridoxal 5′-phosphate coenzyme. Determination of the sequence of an active site octapeptide of the B. stearothermophilus alanine racemase shows homology with the sequence of a Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium alanine racemase that is not susceptible to time-dependent inhibition by Ala-P. Studies with Ala-P analogues suggest the phosphonate dianion is crucial for stable formation of an isomerized long-lived E·Ala-P-inhibited complex.",
author = "Bernard Badet and Kenji Inagaki and Kenji Soda and Walsh, {Christopher T.}",
year = "1986",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "3275--3282",
journal = "Biochemistry",
issn = "0006-2960",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "11",

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T1 - Time-dependent inhibition of Bacillus stearothermophilus alanine racemase by (1-aminoethyl)phosphonate isomers by isomerization to noncovalent slowly dissociating enzyme-(1-aminoethyl)phosphonate complexes

AU - Badet, Bernard

AU - Inagaki, Kenji

AU - Soda, Kenji

AU - Walsh, Christopher T.

PY - 1986

Y1 - 1986

N2 - An alanine racemase encoded by a gene from the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus is overproduced to 0.3% of the soluble protein when carried on plasmid pICR4 in Escherichia coli [Inagaki, K., Tanizawa, K., Badet, B., Walsh, C. T., Tanaka, H., & Soda, K. (1986) Biochemistry (third paper of four in this issue)]. Purification of large quantities (50 mg) of racemase permits study of time-dependent inactivation by D and L isomers of the antibacterial (1-aminoethyl)phosphonate (Ala-P), the phosphonate analogue of alanine. The time-dependent activity loss by this compound now appears general to Gram-positive but not to Gram-negative racemases [Badet, B., & Walsh, C. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 1333] and is shown to occur by extremely slow dissociation of a noncovalent E·Ala-P complex. Ala-P binds initially in a weak, reversible (KI = 1 mM) competitive manner but is slowly isomerized (kinact = 6-9 min-1) to a stoichiometric enzyme complex, which in turn dissociates extremely slowly, with a half-time about 25 days. Thus, Ala-P is a slow but not a tight-binding inhibitor. The E·Ala-P complex is not reducible by borohydride but does perturb the fluorescence of bound pyridoxal 5′-phosphate coenzyme. Determination of the sequence of an active site octapeptide of the B. stearothermophilus alanine racemase shows homology with the sequence of a Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium alanine racemase that is not susceptible to time-dependent inhibition by Ala-P. Studies with Ala-P analogues suggest the phosphonate dianion is crucial for stable formation of an isomerized long-lived E·Ala-P-inhibited complex.

AB - An alanine racemase encoded by a gene from the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus is overproduced to 0.3% of the soluble protein when carried on plasmid pICR4 in Escherichia coli [Inagaki, K., Tanizawa, K., Badet, B., Walsh, C. T., Tanaka, H., & Soda, K. (1986) Biochemistry (third paper of four in this issue)]. Purification of large quantities (50 mg) of racemase permits study of time-dependent inactivation by D and L isomers of the antibacterial (1-aminoethyl)phosphonate (Ala-P), the phosphonate analogue of alanine. The time-dependent activity loss by this compound now appears general to Gram-positive but not to Gram-negative racemases [Badet, B., & Walsh, C. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 1333] and is shown to occur by extremely slow dissociation of a noncovalent E·Ala-P complex. Ala-P binds initially in a weak, reversible (KI = 1 mM) competitive manner but is slowly isomerized (kinact = 6-9 min-1) to a stoichiometric enzyme complex, which in turn dissociates extremely slowly, with a half-time about 25 days. Thus, Ala-P is a slow but not a tight-binding inhibitor. The E·Ala-P complex is not reducible by borohydride but does perturb the fluorescence of bound pyridoxal 5′-phosphate coenzyme. Determination of the sequence of an active site octapeptide of the B. stearothermophilus alanine racemase shows homology with the sequence of a Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium alanine racemase that is not susceptible to time-dependent inhibition by Ala-P. Studies with Ala-P analogues suggest the phosphonate dianion is crucial for stable formation of an isomerized long-lived E·Ala-P-inhibited complex.

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