Three-Layered Complex Interactions among Capsidless (+)ssRNA Yadokariviruses, dsRNA Viruses, and a Fungus

Yukiyo Sato, Sakae Hisano, Carlos José López-Herrera, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We have previously discovered a virus neo-lifestyle exhibited by a capsidless positive-sense (1), single-stranded (ss) RNA virus YkV1 (family Yadokariviridae) and an unrelated double-stranded (ds) RNA virus YnV1 (proposed family “Yadonushiviridae”) in a phytopathogenic ascomycete, Rosellinia necatrix. YkV1 has been proposed to replicate in the capsid provided by YnV1 as if it were a dsRNA virus and enhance YnV1 replication in return. Recently, viruses related to YkV1 (yadokariviruses) have been isolated from diverse ascomycetous fungi. However, it remains obscure whether such viruses generally show the YkV1-like lifestyle. Here, we identified partner viruses for three distinct yadokariviruses, YkV3, YkV4a, and YkV4b, isolated from R. necatrix that were coinfected with multiple dsRNA viruses phylogenetically distantly related to YnV1. We first established transformants of R. necatrix carrying single yadokarivirus cDNAs and fused them with infectants by single partner candidate dsRNA viruses. Consequently, YkV3 and YkV4s replicated only in the presence of RnMBV3 (family Megabirnaviridae) and RnMTV1 (proposed family “Megatotiviridae”), respectively. The partners were mutually interchangeable between the two YkV4 strains and three RnMTV1 strains but not between other combinations involving YkV1 or YkV3. In contrast to YkV1 enhancing YnV1 accumulation, YkV4s reduced RnMTV1 accumulation to different degrees according to strains. Interestingly, YkV4 rescued the host R. necatrix from impaired growth induced by RnMTV1. YkV3 exerted no apparent effect on its partner (RnMBV3) or host fungus. Overall, we revealed that while yadokariviruses generally require partner dsRNA viruses for replication, each yadokarivirus partners with a different dsRNA virus species in the three diverse families and shows a distinct symbiotic relation in a fungus.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • capsidless
  • fungal viruses
  • multilayered interaction
  • mutualism and parasitism
  • plant-pathogenic fungi
  • RNA viruses
  • virus macroevolution
  • virus-virus interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Virology


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