In the photosynthetic apparatus, a major target of photodamage is the D1 reaction center protein of photosystem II (PSII). Photosynthetic organisms have developed a PSII repair cycle in which photodamaged D1 is selectively degraded. A thylakoid membrane-bound metalloprotease, FtsH, was shown to play a critical role in this process. Here, the effect of FtsHs in D1 degradation was investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking FtsH2 (yellow variegated2 [var2]) or FtsH5 (var1). Because these mutants are characterized by variegated leaves that sometimes complicate biochemical studies, we employed another mutation, fu-gaeri1 (fug1), that suppresses leaf variegation in var1 and var2 to examine D1 degradation. Two-dimensional blue native PAGE showed that var2 has less PSII supercomplex and more PSII intermediate lacking CP43, termed RC47, than the wild type under normal growth light. Moreover, our histochemical and quantitative analyses revealed that chloroplasts in var2 accumulate significant levels of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that the lack of FtsH2 leads to impaired D1 degradation at the step of RC47 formation in PSII repair and to photooxidative stress even under nonphotoinhibitory conditions. Our in vivo D1 degradation assays, carried out by nonvariegated var2 fug1 and var1 fug1 leaves, demonstrated that D1 degradation was impaired in different light conditions. Taken together, our results suggest the important role of chloroplastic FtsHs, which was not precisely examined in vivo. Attenuated D1 degradation in the nonvariegated mutants also suggests that leaf variegation seems to be independent of the PSII repair.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science