Background This study aimed to assess the use of 33 MHz ultra-high-frequency ultrasonography (33MHz-UHFUS) for evaluating axillary sweat glands with osmidrosis in comparison with histological techniques. Axillary osmidrosis is a common problem in Asian societies, and the number and size of apocrine sweat glands have a strong relationship with osmidrosis severity. Currently, there are no methods to evaluate sweat gland distribution non-invasively. Methods In this study, 35 skin specimens from 10 fresh human cadavers without osmidrosis and retrospective ultrasonographic images from 20 patients with osmidrosis were used. Skin specimens were embedded in paraffin, thinly sliced, and finally stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histologically, the apocrine and eccrine glands were evaluated, and the top and bottom depths of follicles were measured from the skin surface. In 33 MHz ultrasonography images, the depths of sweat glands were measured, and the mean grey value was calculated using Image J. Results Compared to histological data, 33MHz-UHFUS could be used to identify sweat glands as a hyperechoic structure between the dermis and fat layer. Furthermore, it could evaluate sweat gland distribution but could not distinguish between types of sweat glands. Conclusions The distribution of sweat glands in the axilla can be non-invasively evaluated via 33MHz- UHFUS.
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