The Super-Kamiokande detector

S. Fukuda, Y. Fukuda, T. Hayakawa, E. Ichihara, M. Ishitsuka, Y. Itow, T. Kajita, J. Kameda, K. Kaneyuki, S. Kasuga, K. Kobayashi, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Koshio, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, M. Nakahata, S. Nakayama, T. Namba, Y. Obayashi, A. OkadaM. Oketa, K. Okumura, T. Oyabu, N. Sakurai, M. Shiozawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, T. Toshito, Y. Totsuka, S. Yamada, S. Desai, M. Earl, J. T. Hong, E. Kearns, M. Masuzawa, M. D. Messier, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, C. W. Walter, W. Wang, K. Scholberg, T. Barszczak, D. Casper, D. W. Liu, W. Gajewski, P. G. Halverson, J. Hsu, W. R. Kropp, S. Mine, L. R. Price, F. Reines, M. Smy, H. W. Sobel, M. R. Vagins, K. S. Ganezer, W. E. Keig, R. W. Ellsworth, S. Tasaka, J. W. Flanagan, A. Kibayashi, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, V. J. Stenger, Y. Hayato, T. Ishii, A. Ichikawa, J. Kanzaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Maruyama, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, A. Sakai, M. Sakuda, O. Sasaki, S. Echigo, T. Iwashita, M. Kohama, A. T. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, T. Inagaki, I. Kato, H. Maesaka, T. Nakaya, K. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, T. J. Haines, B. K. Kim, R. Sanford, R. Svoboda, E. Blaufuss, M. L. Chen, Z. Conner, J. A. Goodman, E. Guillian, G. W. Sullivan, D. Turcan, A. Habig, M. Ackerman, F. Goebel, J. Hill, C. K. Jung, T. Kato, D. Kerr, M. Malek, K. Martens, C. Mauger, C. McGrew, E. Sharkey, B. Viren, C. Yanagisawa, W. Doki, S. Inaba, K. Ito, M. Kirisawa, M. Kitaguchi, C. Mitsuda, K. Miyano, C. Saji, M. Takahata, M. Takahashi, K. Higuchi, Y. Kajiyama, A. Kusano, Y. Nagashima, K. Nitta, M. Takita, T. Yamaguchi, M. Yoshida, H. I. Kim, S. B. Kim, J. Yoo, H. Okazawa, M. Etoh, K. Fujita, Y. Gando, A. Hasegawa, T. Hasegawa, S. Hatakeyama, K. Inoue, K. Ishihara, T. Iwamoto, M. Koga, I. Nishiyama, H. Ogawa, J. Shirai, A. Suzuki, T. Takayama, F. Tsushima, M. Koshiba, Y. Ichikawa, T. Hashimoto, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Koike, T. Horiuchi, M. Nemoto, K. Nishijima, H. Takeda, H. Fujiyasu, T. Futagami, H. Ishino, Y. Kanaya, M. Morii, H. Nishihama, H. Nishimura, T. Suzuki, Y. Watanabe, D. Kielczewska, U. Golebiewska, H. G. Berns, S. B. Boyd, R. A. Doyle, J. S. George, A. L. Stachyra, L. L. Wai, R. J. Wilkes, K. K. Young, H. Kobayashi

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601 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)418-462
Number of pages45
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume501
Issue number2-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2003

Keywords

  • Cosmic rays
  • K2K
  • Neutrinos
  • Super-Kamiokande
  • Water Cherenkov detector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

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    Fukuda, S., Fukuda, Y., Hayakawa, T., Ichihara, E., Ishitsuka, M., Itow, Y., Kajita, T., Kameda, J., Kaneyuki, K., Kasuga, S., Kobayashi, K., Kobayashi, Y., Koshio, Y., Miura, M., Moriyama, S., Nakahata, M., Nakayama, S., Namba, T., Obayashi, Y., ... Kobayashi, H. (2003). The Super-Kamiokande detector. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 501(2-3), 418-462. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(03)00425-X