The Super-Kamiokande detector

S. Fukuda, Y. Fukuda, T. Hayakawa, E. Ichihara, M. Ishitsuka, Y. Itow, T. Kajita, J. Kameda, K. Kaneyuki, S. Kasuga, K. Kobayashi, Y. Kobayashi, Yusuke Koshio, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, M. Nakahata, S. Nakayama, T. Namba, Y. Obayashi, A. Okada & 157 others M. Oketa, K. Okumura, T. Oyabu, N. Sakurai, M. Shiozawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, T. Toshito, Y. Totsuka, S. Yamada, S. Desai, M. Earl, J. T. Hong, E. Kearns, M. Masuzawa, M. D. Messier, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, C. W. Walter, W. Wang, K. Scholberg, T. Barszczak, D. Casper, D. W. Liu, W. Gajewski, P. G. Halverson, J. Hsu, W. R. Kropp, S. Mine, L. R. Price, F. Reines, M. Smy, H. W. Sobel, M. R. Vagins, K. S. Ganezer, W. E. Keig, R. W. Ellsworth, S. Tasaka, J. W. Flanagan, A. Kibayashi, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, V. J. Stenger, Y. Hayato, T. Ishii, A. Ichikawa, J. Kanzaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Maruyama, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, A. Sakai, Makoto Sakuda, O. Sasaki, S. Echigo, T. Iwashita, M. Kohama, A. T. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, T. Inagaki, I. Kato, H. Maesaka, T. Nakaya, K. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, T. J. Haines, B. K. Kim, R. Sanford, R. Svoboda, E. Blaufuss, M. L. Chen, Z. Conner, J. A. Goodman, E. Guillian, G. W. Sullivan, D. Turcan, A. Habig, M. Ackerman, F. Goebel, J. Hill, C. K. Jung, T. Kato, D. Kerr, M. Malek, K. Martens, C. Mauger, C. McGrew, E. Sharkey, B. Viren, C. Yanagisawa, W. Doki, S. Inaba, K. Ito, M. Kirisawa, M. Kitaguchi, C. Mitsuda, K. Miyano, C. Saji, M. Takahata, M. Takahashi, K. Higuchi, Y. Kajiyama, A. Kusano, Y. Nagashima, K. Nitta, M. Takita, T. Yamaguchi, M. Yoshida, H. I. Kim, S. B. Kim, J. Yoo, H. Okazawa, M. Etoh, K. Fujita, Y. Gando, A. Hasegawa, T. Hasegawa, S. Hatakeyama, K. Inoue, K. Ishihara, T. Iwamoto, M. Koga, I. Nishiyama, H. Ogawa, J. Shirai, A. Suzuki, T. Takayama, F. Tsushima, M. Koshiba, Y. Ichikawa, T. Hashimoto, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Koike, T. Horiuchi, M. Nemoto, K. Nishijima, H. Takeda, H. Fujiyasu, T. Futagami, Hirokazu Ishino, Y. Kanaya, M. Morii, H. Nishihama, H. Nishimura, T. Suzuki, Y. Watanabe, D. Kielczewska, U. Golebiewska, H. G. Berns, S. B. Boyd, R. A. Doyle, J. S. George, A. L. Stachyra, L. L. Wai, R. J. Wilkes, K. K. Young, H. Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

532 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)418-462
Number of pages45
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume501
Issue number2-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

neutrinos
Detectors
neutrino beams
Earth atmosphere
detectors
Sun
data acquisition
Data acquisition
sun
Calibration
computer programs
oscillations
decay
configurations
water
Water

Keywords

  • Cosmic rays
  • K2K
  • Neutrinos
  • Super-Kamiokande
  • Water Cherenkov detector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

The Super-Kamiokande detector. / Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Ishitsuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Yusuke; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Namba, T.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Oketa, M.; Okumura, K.; Oyabu, T.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Toshito, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Desai, S.; Earl, M.; Hong, J. T.; Kearns, E.; Masuzawa, M.; Messier, M. D.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Walter, C. W.; Wang, W.; Scholberg, K.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Liu, D. W.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P. G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Price, L. R.; Reines, F.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H. W.; Vagins, M. R.; Ganezer, K. S.; Keig, W. E.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J. W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V. J.; Hayato, Y.; Ishii, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Maruyama, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, Makoto; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Iwashita, T.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A. T.; Hasegawa, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, I.; Maesaka, H.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Haines, T. J.; Kim, B. K.; Sanford, R.; Svoboda, R.; Blaufuss, E.; Chen, M. L.; Conner, Z.; Goodman, J. A.; Guillian, E.; Sullivan, G. W.; Turcan, D.; Habig, A.; Ackerman, M.; Goebel, F.; Hill, J.; Jung, C. K.; Kato, T.; Kerr, D.; Malek, M.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Viren, B.; Yanagisawa, C.; Doki, W.; Inaba, S.; Ito, K.; Kirisawa, M.; Kitaguchi, M.; Mitsuda, C.; Miyano, K.; Saji, C.; Takahata, M.; Takahashi, M.; Higuchi, K.; Kajiyama, Y.; Kusano, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Nitta, K.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, H. I.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, J.; Okazawa, H.; Etoh, M.; Fujita, K.; Gando, Y.; Hasegawa, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Koga, M.; Nishiyama, I.; Ogawa, H.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takayama, T.; Tsushima, F.; Koshiba, M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Koike, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Nemoto, M.; Nishijima, K.; Takeda, H.; Fujiyasu, H.; Futagami, T.; Ishino, Hirokazu; Kanaya, Y.; Morii, M.; Nishihama, H.; Nishimura, H.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kielczewska, D.; Golebiewska, U.; Berns, H. G.; Boyd, S. B.; Doyle, R. A.; George, J. S.; Stachyra, A. L.; Wai, L. L.; Wilkes, R. J.; Young, K. K.; Kobayashi, H.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 501, No. 2-3, 01.04.2003, p. 418-462.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fukuda, S, Fukuda, Y, Hayakawa, T, Ichihara, E, Ishitsuka, M, Itow, Y, Kajita, T, Kameda, J, Kaneyuki, K, Kasuga, S, Kobayashi, K, Kobayashi, Y, Koshio, Y, Miura, M, Moriyama, S, Nakahata, M, Nakayama, S, Namba, T, Obayashi, Y, Okada, A, Oketa, M, Okumura, K, Oyabu, T, Sakurai, N, Shiozawa, M, Suzuki, Y, Takeuchi, Y, Toshito, T, Totsuka, Y, Yamada, S, Desai, S, Earl, M, Hong, JT, Kearns, E, Masuzawa, M, Messier, MD, Stone, JL, Sulak, LR, Walter, CW, Wang, W, Scholberg, K, Barszczak, T, Casper, D, Liu, DW, Gajewski, W, Halverson, PG, Hsu, J, Kropp, WR, Mine, S, Price, LR, Reines, F, Smy, M, Sobel, HW, Vagins, MR, Ganezer, KS, Keig, WE, Ellsworth, RW, Tasaka, S, Flanagan, JW, Kibayashi, A, Learned, JG, Matsuno, S, Stenger, VJ, Hayato, Y, Ishii, T, Ichikawa, A, Kanzaki, J, Kobayashi, T, Maruyama, T, Nakamura, K, Oyama, Y, Sakai, A, Sakuda, M, Sasaki, O, Echigo, S, Iwashita, T, Kohama, M, Suzuki, AT, Hasegawa, M, Inagaki, T, Kato, I, Maesaka, H, Nakaya, T, Nishikawa, K, Yamamoto, S, Haines, TJ, Kim, BK, Sanford, R, Svoboda, R, Blaufuss, E, Chen, ML, Conner, Z, Goodman, JA, Guillian, E, Sullivan, GW, Turcan, D, Habig, A, Ackerman, M, Goebel, F, Hill, J, Jung, CK, Kato, T, Kerr, D, Malek, M, Martens, K, Mauger, C, McGrew, C, Sharkey, E, Viren, B, Yanagisawa, C, Doki, W, Inaba, S, Ito, K, Kirisawa, M, Kitaguchi, M, Mitsuda, C, Miyano, K, Saji, C, Takahata, M, Takahashi, M, Higuchi, K, Kajiyama, Y, Kusano, A, Nagashima, Y, Nitta, K, Takita, M, Yamaguchi, T, Yoshida, M, Kim, HI, Kim, SB, Yoo, J, Okazawa, H, Etoh, M, Fujita, K, Gando, Y, Hasegawa, A, Hasegawa, T, Hatakeyama, S, Inoue, K, Ishihara, K, Iwamoto, T, Koga, M, Nishiyama, I, Ogawa, H, Shirai, J, Suzuki, A, Takayama, T, Tsushima, F, Koshiba, M, Ichikawa, Y, Hashimoto, T, Hatakeyama, Y, Koike, M, Horiuchi, T, Nemoto, M, Nishijima, K, Takeda, H, Fujiyasu, H, Futagami, T, Ishino, H, Kanaya, Y, Morii, M, Nishihama, H, Nishimura, H, Suzuki, T, Watanabe, Y, Kielczewska, D, Golebiewska, U, Berns, HG, Boyd, SB, Doyle, RA, George, JS, Stachyra, AL, Wai, LL, Wilkes, RJ, Young, KK & Kobayashi, H 2003, 'The Super-Kamiokande detector', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 501, no. 2-3, pp. 418-462. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(03)00425-X
Fukuda, S. ; Fukuda, Y. ; Hayakawa, T. ; Ichihara, E. ; Ishitsuka, M. ; Itow, Y. ; Kajita, T. ; Kameda, J. ; Kaneyuki, K. ; Kasuga, S. ; Kobayashi, K. ; Kobayashi, Y. ; Koshio, Yusuke ; Miura, M. ; Moriyama, S. ; Nakahata, M. ; Nakayama, S. ; Namba, T. ; Obayashi, Y. ; Okada, A. ; Oketa, M. ; Okumura, K. ; Oyabu, T. ; Sakurai, N. ; Shiozawa, M. ; Suzuki, Y. ; Takeuchi, Y. ; Toshito, T. ; Totsuka, Y. ; Yamada, S. ; Desai, S. ; Earl, M. ; Hong, J. T. ; Kearns, E. ; Masuzawa, M. ; Messier, M. D. ; Stone, J. L. ; Sulak, L. R. ; Walter, C. W. ; Wang, W. ; Scholberg, K. ; Barszczak, T. ; Casper, D. ; Liu, D. W. ; Gajewski, W. ; Halverson, P. G. ; Hsu, J. ; Kropp, W. R. ; Mine, S. ; Price, L. R. ; Reines, F. ; Smy, M. ; Sobel, H. W. ; Vagins, M. R. ; Ganezer, K. S. ; Keig, W. E. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Tasaka, S. ; Flanagan, J. W. ; Kibayashi, A. ; Learned, J. G. ; Matsuno, S. ; Stenger, V. J. ; Hayato, Y. ; Ishii, T. ; Ichikawa, A. ; Kanzaki, J. ; Kobayashi, T. ; Maruyama, T. ; Nakamura, K. ; Oyama, Y. ; Sakai, A. ; Sakuda, Makoto ; Sasaki, O. ; Echigo, S. ; Iwashita, T. ; Kohama, M. ; Suzuki, A. T. ; Hasegawa, M. ; Inagaki, T. ; Kato, I. ; Maesaka, H. ; Nakaya, T. ; Nishikawa, K. ; Yamamoto, S. ; Haines, T. J. ; Kim, B. K. ; Sanford, R. ; Svoboda, R. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Chen, M. L. ; Conner, Z. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Guillian, E. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Turcan, D. ; Habig, A. ; Ackerman, M. ; Goebel, F. ; Hill, J. ; Jung, C. K. ; Kato, T. ; Kerr, D. ; Malek, M. ; Martens, K. ; Mauger, C. ; McGrew, C. ; Sharkey, E. ; Viren, B. ; Yanagisawa, C. ; Doki, W. ; Inaba, S. ; Ito, K. ; Kirisawa, M. ; Kitaguchi, M. ; Mitsuda, C. ; Miyano, K. ; Saji, C. ; Takahata, M. ; Takahashi, M. ; Higuchi, K. ; Kajiyama, Y. ; Kusano, A. ; Nagashima, Y. ; Nitta, K. ; Takita, M. ; Yamaguchi, T. ; Yoshida, M. ; Kim, H. I. ; Kim, S. B. ; Yoo, J. ; Okazawa, H. ; Etoh, M. ; Fujita, K. ; Gando, Y. ; Hasegawa, A. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Hatakeyama, S. ; Inoue, K. ; Ishihara, K. ; Iwamoto, T. ; Koga, M. ; Nishiyama, I. ; Ogawa, H. ; Shirai, J. ; Suzuki, A. ; Takayama, T. ; Tsushima, F. ; Koshiba, M. ; Ichikawa, Y. ; Hashimoto, T. ; Hatakeyama, Y. ; Koike, M. ; Horiuchi, T. ; Nemoto, M. ; Nishijima, K. ; Takeda, H. ; Fujiyasu, H. ; Futagami, T. ; Ishino, Hirokazu ; Kanaya, Y. ; Morii, M. ; Nishihama, H. ; Nishimura, H. ; Suzuki, T. ; Watanabe, Y. ; Kielczewska, D. ; Golebiewska, U. ; Berns, H. G. ; Boyd, S. B. ; Doyle, R. A. ; George, J. S. ; Stachyra, A. L. ; Wai, L. L. ; Wilkes, R. J. ; Young, K. K. ; Kobayashi, H. / The Super-Kamiokande detector. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2003 ; Vol. 501, No. 2-3. pp. 418-462.
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title = "The Super-Kamiokande detector",
abstract = "Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I.",
keywords = "Cosmic rays, K2K, Neutrinos, Super-Kamiokande, Water Cherenkov detector",
author = "S. Fukuda and Y. Fukuda and T. Hayakawa and E. Ichihara and M. Ishitsuka and Y. Itow and T. Kajita and J. Kameda and K. Kaneyuki and S. Kasuga and K. Kobayashi and Y. Kobayashi and Yusuke Koshio and M. Miura and S. Moriyama and M. Nakahata and S. Nakayama and T. Namba and Y. Obayashi and A. Okada and M. Oketa and K. Okumura and T. Oyabu and N. Sakurai and M. Shiozawa and Y. Suzuki and Y. Takeuchi and T. Toshito and Y. Totsuka and S. Yamada and S. Desai and M. Earl and Hong, {J. T.} and E. Kearns and M. Masuzawa and Messier, {M. D.} and Stone, {J. L.} and Sulak, {L. R.} and Walter, {C. W.} and W. Wang and K. Scholberg and T. Barszczak and D. Casper and Liu, {D. W.} and W. Gajewski and Halverson, {P. G.} and J. Hsu and Kropp, {W. R.} and S. Mine and Price, {L. R.} and F. Reines and M. Smy and Sobel, {H. W.} and Vagins, {M. R.} and Ganezer, {K. S.} and Keig, {W. E.} and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and S. Tasaka and Flanagan, {J. W.} and A. Kibayashi and Learned, {J. G.} and S. Matsuno and Stenger, {V. J.} and Y. Hayato and T. Ishii and A. Ichikawa and J. Kanzaki and T. Kobayashi and T. Maruyama and K. Nakamura and Y. Oyama and A. Sakai and Makoto Sakuda and O. Sasaki and S. Echigo and T. Iwashita and M. Kohama and Suzuki, {A. T.} and M. Hasegawa and T. Inagaki and I. Kato and H. Maesaka and T. Nakaya and K. Nishikawa and S. Yamamoto and Haines, {T. J.} and Kim, {B. K.} and R. Sanford and R. Svoboda and E. Blaufuss and Chen, {M. L.} and Z. Conner and Goodman, {J. A.} and E. Guillian and Sullivan, {G. W.} and D. Turcan and A. Habig and M. Ackerman and F. Goebel and J. Hill and Jung, {C. K.} and T. Kato and D. Kerr and M. Malek and K. Martens and C. Mauger and C. McGrew and E. Sharkey and B. Viren and C. Yanagisawa and W. Doki and S. Inaba and K. Ito and M. Kirisawa and M. Kitaguchi and C. Mitsuda and K. Miyano and C. Saji and M. Takahata and M. Takahashi and K. Higuchi and Y. Kajiyama and A. Kusano and Y. Nagashima and K. Nitta and M. Takita and T. Yamaguchi and M. Yoshida and Kim, {H. I.} and Kim, {S. B.} and J. Yoo and H. Okazawa and M. Etoh and K. Fujita and Y. Gando and A. Hasegawa and T. Hasegawa and S. Hatakeyama and K. Inoue and K. Ishihara and T. Iwamoto and M. Koga and I. Nishiyama and H. Ogawa and J. Shirai and A. Suzuki and T. Takayama and F. Tsushima and M. Koshiba and Y. Ichikawa and T. Hashimoto and Y. Hatakeyama and M. Koike and T. Horiuchi and M. Nemoto and K. Nishijima and H. Takeda and H. Fujiyasu and T. Futagami and Hirokazu Ishino and Y. Kanaya and M. Morii and H. Nishihama and H. Nishimura and T. Suzuki and Y. Watanabe and D. Kielczewska and U. Golebiewska and Berns, {H. G.} and Boyd, {S. B.} and Doyle, {R. A.} and George, {J. S.} and Stachyra, {A. L.} and Wai, {L. L.} and Wilkes, {R. J.} and Young, {K. K.} and H. Kobayashi",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The Super-Kamiokande detector

AU - Fukuda, S.

AU - Fukuda, Y.

AU - Hayakawa, T.

AU - Ichihara, E.

AU - Ishitsuka, M.

AU - Itow, Y.

AU - Kajita, T.

AU - Kameda, J.

AU - Kaneyuki, K.

AU - Kasuga, S.

AU - Kobayashi, K.

AU - Kobayashi, Y.

AU - Koshio, Yusuke

AU - Miura, M.

AU - Moriyama, S.

AU - Nakahata, M.

AU - Nakayama, S.

AU - Namba, T.

AU - Obayashi, Y.

AU - Okada, A.

AU - Oketa, M.

AU - Okumura, K.

AU - Oyabu, T.

AU - Sakurai, N.

AU - Shiozawa, M.

AU - Suzuki, Y.

AU - Takeuchi, Y.

AU - Toshito, T.

AU - Totsuka, Y.

AU - Yamada, S.

AU - Desai, S.

AU - Earl, M.

AU - Hong, J. T.

AU - Kearns, E.

AU - Masuzawa, M.

AU - Messier, M. D.

AU - Stone, J. L.

AU - Sulak, L. R.

AU - Walter, C. W.

AU - Wang, W.

AU - Scholberg, K.

AU - Barszczak, T.

AU - Casper, D.

AU - Liu, D. W.

AU - Gajewski, W.

AU - Halverson, P. G.

AU - Hsu, J.

AU - Kropp, W. R.

AU - Mine, S.

AU - Price, L. R.

AU - Reines, F.

AU - Smy, M.

AU - Sobel, H. W.

AU - Vagins, M. R.

AU - Ganezer, K. S.

AU - Keig, W. E.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Tasaka, S.

AU - Flanagan, J. W.

AU - Kibayashi, A.

AU - Learned, J. G.

AU - Matsuno, S.

AU - Stenger, V. J.

AU - Hayato, Y.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Ichikawa, A.

AU - Kanzaki, J.

AU - Kobayashi, T.

AU - Maruyama, T.

AU - Nakamura, K.

AU - Oyama, Y.

AU - Sakai, A.

AU - Sakuda, Makoto

AU - Sasaki, O.

AU - Echigo, S.

AU - Iwashita, T.

AU - Kohama, M.

AU - Suzuki, A. T.

AU - Hasegawa, M.

AU - Inagaki, T.

AU - Kato, I.

AU - Maesaka, H.

AU - Nakaya, T.

AU - Nishikawa, K.

AU - Yamamoto, S.

AU - Haines, T. J.

AU - Kim, B. K.

AU - Sanford, R.

AU - Svoboda, R.

AU - Blaufuss, E.

AU - Chen, M. L.

AU - Conner, Z.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Guillian, E.

AU - Sullivan, G. W.

AU - Turcan, D.

AU - Habig, A.

AU - Ackerman, M.

AU - Goebel, F.

AU - Hill, J.

AU - Jung, C. K.

AU - Kato, T.

AU - Kerr, D.

AU - Malek, M.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Mauger, C.

AU - McGrew, C.

AU - Sharkey, E.

AU - Viren, B.

AU - Yanagisawa, C.

AU - Doki, W.

AU - Inaba, S.

AU - Ito, K.

AU - Kirisawa, M.

AU - Kitaguchi, M.

AU - Mitsuda, C.

AU - Miyano, K.

AU - Saji, C.

AU - Takahata, M.

AU - Takahashi, M.

AU - Higuchi, K.

AU - Kajiyama, Y.

AU - Kusano, A.

AU - Nagashima, Y.

AU - Nitta, K.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Yamaguchi, T.

AU - Yoshida, M.

AU - Kim, H. I.

AU - Kim, S. B.

AU - Yoo, J.

AU - Okazawa, H.

AU - Etoh, M.

AU - Fujita, K.

AU - Gando, Y.

AU - Hasegawa, A.

AU - Hasegawa, T.

AU - Hatakeyama, S.

AU - Inoue, K.

AU - Ishihara, K.

AU - Iwamoto, T.

AU - Koga, M.

AU - Nishiyama, I.

AU - Ogawa, H.

AU - Shirai, J.

AU - Suzuki, A.

AU - Takayama, T.

AU - Tsushima, F.

AU - Koshiba, M.

AU - Ichikawa, Y.

AU - Hashimoto, T.

AU - Hatakeyama, Y.

AU - Koike, M.

AU - Horiuchi, T.

AU - Nemoto, M.

AU - Nishijima, K.

AU - Takeda, H.

AU - Fujiyasu, H.

AU - Futagami, T.

AU - Ishino, Hirokazu

AU - Kanaya, Y.

AU - Morii, M.

AU - Nishihama, H.

AU - Nishimura, H.

AU - Suzuki, T.

AU - Watanabe, Y.

AU - Kielczewska, D.

AU - Golebiewska, U.

AU - Berns, H. G.

AU - Boyd, S. B.

AU - Doyle, R. A.

AU - George, J. S.

AU - Stachyra, A. L.

AU - Wai, L. L.

AU - Wilkes, R. J.

AU - Young, K. K.

AU - Kobayashi, H.

PY - 2003/4/1

Y1 - 2003/4/1

N2 - Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I.

AB - Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I.

KW - Cosmic rays

KW - K2K

KW - Neutrinos

KW - Super-Kamiokande

KW - Water Cherenkov detector

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=17144440163&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=17144440163&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)00425-X

DO - 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)00425-X

M3 - Article

VL - 501

SP - 418

EP - 462

JO - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

JF - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

SN - 0168-9002

IS - 2-3

ER -