Chloroplasts have a crucial role in plant immunity against pathogens. Increasing evidence suggests that phytopathogens target chloroplast homeostasis as a pathogenicity mechanism. In order to regulate the performance of chloroplasts under stress conditions, chloroplasts produce retrograde signals to alter nuclear gene expression. Many signals for the chloroplast retrograde pathway have been identified, including chlorophyll intermediates, reactive oxygen species, and metabolic retrograde signals. Although there is a reasonably good understanding of chloroplast retrograde signaling in plant immunity, some signals are not wellunderstood. In order to understand the role of chloroplast retrograde signaling in plant immunity, we investigated Arabidopsis chloroplast retrograde signaling mutants in response to pathogen inoculation. sal1 mutants (fry1-2 and alx8) responsible for the SAL1-PAP retrograde signaling pathway showed enhanced disease symptoms not only to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 but, also, to the necrotrophic pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum EC1. Glucosinolate profiles demonstrated the reduced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in the fry1-2 and alx8 mutants compared with the wild-type Col-0 in response to DC3000 infection. In addition, quantification of multiple phytohormones and analyses of their gene expression profiles revealed that both the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling pathways were down-regulated in the fry1-2 and alx8 mutants. These results suggest that the SAL1-PAP chloroplast retrograde pathway is involved in plant immunity by regulating the SA- and JA-mediated signaling pathways.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science