The wobble base of Escherichia coli elongator tRNAMet is modified to N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C), which is thought to ensure the precise recognition of the AUG codon by preventing misreading of near-cognate AUA codon. By employing genome-wide screen of uncharacterized genes in Escherichia coli ('ribonucleome analysis'), we found the ypfI gene, which we named tmcA (tRNAMet cytidine acetyltransferase), to be responsible for ac4C formation. TmcA is an enzyme that contains a Walker-type ATPase domain in its N-terminal region and an N-acetyltransferase domain in its C-terminal region. Recombinant TmcA specifically acetylated the wobble base of E. coli elongator tRNAMet by utilizing acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and ATP (or GTP). ATP/GTP hydrolysis by TmcA is stimulated in the presence of acetyl-CoA and tRNAMet. A mutation study revealed that E. coli TmcA strictly discriminates elongator tRNAMet from the structurally similar tRNAIle by mainly recognizing the C27-G43 pair in the anticodon stem. Our findings reveal an elaborate mechanism embedded in tRNA Met and tRNAIle for the accurate decoding of AUA/AUG codons on the basis of the recognition of wobble bases by the respective RNA-modifying enzymes.
- N-acetylcytidine (acC)
- RNA acetyltransferase
- Wobble modification
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)