The prognostic value of the urokinase-plasminogen activator system (uPA) in bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC)

Florian Janisch, David D'Andrea, Takehiro Iwata, Shoji Kimura, Mohammad Abufaraj, Dmitry Enikeev, Petr V. Glybochko, Pierre I. Karakiewicz, Peter Nyirady, Harun Fajkovic, Andrea Haitel, Veronika Seebacher, Michael Rink, Shahrokh F. Shariat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor (uPAR), and the plasmin-activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) have been associated with oncologic outcomes in various malignancies and could help identify bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) who are likely to benefit from intensification of therapy to prevent disease progression. Our aim was to assess the value of uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 for prognosticating survival outcomes of patients treated with RC for BC. Materials and methods: Tumor specimens from 272 consecutive patients treated with RC for advanced BC were assessed with immunohistochemical staining for uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1. Overexpression was assessed by pathological image analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimates and multivariable Cox-regression were used to analyze survival. Harrell's C-index was used to assess for clinical impact of the uPA system. Results: uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 were overexpressed in 48.2%, 51.1%, and 52.2% of patients, respectively. uPA overexpression was associated with lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.034) and nodal status (P = 0.013); PAI-1 overexpression was associated with primary muscle-invasive BC (P = 0.015) and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.024). uPA, uPAR, and the number of overexpressed markers were all 3 significantly associated with shorter overall recurrence-free-, distant recurrence-free-, and cancer-specific survival. In multivariable analyses, uPA overexpression remained associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.79; P = 0.036) in the entire cohort, in patients without lymph node metastasis (HR = 1.98; P = 0.018) and those with nonorgan-confined disease (HR = 1.98; P = 0.022). uPAR overexpression was associated with shorter recurrence-free survival in patients without lymph node metastasis (HR = 2.01; P = 0.021) and those with organ-confined disease (HR = 4.11; P = 0.037). Conclusion: Members of the uPA system are associated with features of biologically aggressive BC and oncologic outcomes. However, their value beyond currently available information remains limited.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)423-432
Number of pages10
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Volume38
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bladder cancer
  • PAI-1
  • Radical cystectomy
  • uPA
  • uPAR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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    Janisch, F., D'Andrea, D., Iwata, T., Kimura, S., Abufaraj, M., Enikeev, D., Glybochko, P. V., Karakiewicz, P. I., Nyirady, P., Fajkovic, H., Haitel, A., Seebacher, V., Rink, M., & Shariat, S. F. (2020). The prognostic value of the urokinase-plasminogen activator system (uPA) in bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC). Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, 38(5), 423-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.02.002