Diatoms play important roles in global primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling of carbon, in part owing to the ability of their photosynthetic apparatus to adapt to rapidly changing light intensity. We report a cryo–electron microscopy structure of the photosystem II (PSII)–fucoxanthin (Fx) chlorophyll (Chl) a/c binding protein (FCPII) supercomplex from the centric diatom Chaetoceros gracilis. The supercomplex comprises two protomers, each with two tetrameric and three monomeric FCPIIs around a PSII core that contains five extrinsic oxygen-evolving proteins at the lumenal surface. The structure reveals the arrangement of a huge pigment network that contributes to efficient light energy harvesting, transfer, and dissipation processes in the diatoms.
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