Background: The fear-avoidance model is a theoretical paradigm for explaining acute and chronic pain. In this model, pain catastrophizing plays an important role. On the other hand, self-efficacy influences whether patients view their pain optimistically, ultimately preventing the conversion of pain into intractable pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the factors that influence self-efficacy in patients with chronic pain. Methods: Study participants included 147 outpatients (35 men, 112 women) with intractable chronic pain who visited our hospital between September 2014 and July 2015. Their mean age was 71.0 (range 32-92) years. Pain sites were as follows: low back, 97 patients; knee, 71 patients; shoulder, 34 patients; and hip, 15 patients. All patients were assessed using the following measures: Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Pain Disability Assessment Scale (PDAS), and Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ). All participants were further divided into two groups based on median PSEQ scores (group L: PSEQ of 35 points or less, n = 74; group H: PSEQ greater than 35 points, n = 73). The factors that influenced self-efficacy in these patients were analyzed using univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Significant differences were observed in gender; pain duration; and NRS, PDAS, HADS, and PCS scores between group L and group H. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that self-efficacy was correlated with PDAS score, HADS depression score, and pain duration. Conclusions: Patients with longer pain duration indicated greater self-efficacy and patients with higher pain disability and depression exhibited lower self-efficacy.
- Chronic pain
- Fear-avoidance model
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine