Introduction: The Wnt signaling pathway acts as a key regulator of skeletal development and its homeostasis. However, the potential role of Wnt1 in the mechanotransduction machinery of orthodontic tooth movement-initiated bone remodeling is still unclear. Hence, this study focused on the regulatory dynamics of the Wnt1 expression in both the periodontal ligament (PDL) and osteocytes in vivo and in vitro. Methods: The Wnt1 expression in the orthodontically moved maxillary first molar in mice was assessed at 0, 1, and 5 days, on both the compression and tension sides. Primary isolated human PDL (hPDL) fibroblasts, as well as murine long-bone osteocyte-Y4 (MLO-Y4) cells, were exposed to continuous compressive force and static tensile force. Results: The relative quantification of immunodetection showed that orthodontic tooth movement significantly stimulated the Wnt1 expression in both the PDL and alveolar osteocytes on the tension side on day 5, whereas the expression on the compression side did not change. This increase in the Wnt1 expression, shown in vivo, was also noted after the application of 12% static tensile force in isolated hPDL fibroblasts and 20% in MLO-Y4 cells. In contrast, a compressive force led to the attenuation of the Wnt1 gene expression in both hPDL fibroblasts and MLO-Y4 cells in a force-dependent manner. In the osteocyte-PDL coculture system, recombinant sclerostin attenuated Wnt1 in PDL, whereas the antisclerostin antibody upregulated its gene expression, indicating that mechanically-driven Wnt1 signaling in PDL might be regulated by osteocytic sclerostin. Conclusions: Our findings provide that Wnt1 signaling plays a vital role in tooth movement–initiated bone remodeling via innovative mechanotransduction approaches.
|Journal||American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2020|
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