Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is an economically important pathogen of sugar beet and has been found worldwide, probably as the result of recent worldwide spread. The BNYVV genome consists of four or five RNA components. Here, we report analysis of sequence variation in the RNA3-p25, RNA4-p31, RNA2-CP, and RNA5-p26 genes of 73 worldwide isolates. The RNA3-p25 gene encodes virulence and avirulence factors. These four sets of gene sequences each fell into two to four groups, of which the three groups of p25 formed eight subgroups with different geographical distributions. Each of these subgroup isolates (strains) could have arisen from four original BNYVV population and their mixed infections. The genetic diversity for BNYVV was relatively small. Selection pressure varied greatly depending on the BNYVV gene and geographical location. Isolates of the Italy strain, in which p25 was subject to the strongest positive selection, were able to overcome the Rz1-host resistance gene to differing degrees, whereas other geographically limited strains could not. Resistance-breaking variants were generated by p25 amino acid changes at positions 67 and 68. Our studies suggest that BNYVV originally evolved in East Asia and has recently become a pathogen of cultivated sugar beet followed by the emergence of new resistance-breaking variants.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science