(1) Background: Our previous studies revealed that orexin-A, an appetite-increasing peptide, suppressed reflex swallowing via the commissural part of the nucleus tractus solitarius (cNTS), and that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an appetite-reducing peptide, also suppressed reflex swallowing via the medial nucleus of the NTS (mNTS). In this study, we examined the mutual interaction between orexin-A and GLP-1 in reflex swallowing. (2) Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats under urethane-chloralose anesthesia were used. Swallowing was induced by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyographic (EMG) signals obtained from the mylohyoid muscle. (3) Results: The injection of GLP-1 (20 pmol) into the mNTS reduced the swallowing frequency and extended the latency of the first swallow. These suppressive effects of GLP-1 were not observed after the fourth ventricular administration of orexin-A. After the injection of an orexin-1 receptor antagonist (SB334867) into the cNTS, an ineffective dose of GLP-1 (6 pmol) into the mNTS suppressed reflex swallowing. Similarly, the suppressive effects of orexin-A (1 nmol) were not observed after the injection of GLP-1 (6 pmol) into the mNTS. After the administration of a GLP-1 receptor antagonist (exendin-4(5-39)), an ineffective dose of orexin-A (0.3 nmol) suppressed reflex swallowing. (4) Conclusions: The presence of reciprocal inhibitory connections between GLP-1 receptive neurons and orexin-A receptive neurons in the NTS was strongly suggested.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry