Hypothyroidism is known to be correlated with kidney function and nephrotic range proteinuria. However, it is uncertain whether non-nephrotic proteinuria is associated with hypothyroidism. This study aimed to evaluate the association of proteinuria and hypothyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study composed of 421 CKD patients in a single hospital with measurements of 24-h urine protein excretion (UP) and thyroid function tests. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that 24-h Cr clearance (24hrCcr) was positively (r = 0.273, p < 0.001) and UP was negatively (r = − 0.207, p < 0.001) correlated with free triiodothyronine. Frequency distribution analysis stratified by CKD stage and UP for hypothyroidism revealed that the prevalence of hypothyroidism was higher among participants with higher CKD stage and nephrotic range proteinuria. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that 24hrCcr and UP were significantly correlated with hypothyroidism (24hrCcr/10 mL/min decrease: odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18–1.41; UP/1 g increase: OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03–1.17). In addition, nephrotic range proteinuria, but not moderate UP (UP: 1.5–3.49 g/day), was significantly correlated with hypothyroidism compared to UP < 0.5 g/day. In summary, decreased kidney function and nephrotic range proteinuria, not non-nephrotic proteinuria, are independently associated with the hypothyroidism.
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