Background. Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-partial tandem duplication (PTD) is associated with poor prognosis in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but its relationship to pediatric AML is unknown. Procedure. One hundred fifty-eight newly diagnosed AML patients, including 13 FAB-M3 and 10 Down syndrome (DS) patients, who were treated on the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Treatment Protocol AML 99 were analyzed for MLL-PTD, as well as internal tandem duplication (ITD) and the kinase domain mutation (D835Mt) in the FLT3 gene. Results. We found MLL-PTD in 21 (13.3%) of 158 AML patients, but not in FAB-M3 or DS patients. The differences between patients with and without MLL-PTD were significant for 3-year overall survival (OS) (56.3% vs. 83.2%, P=0.018), disease-free survival (DFS) (41.7% vs. 69.6%, P=0.010), and relapse rate (RR) (54.3% vs. 27.6%, P=0.00851 of 135 AML patients excluding the FAB-M3 and DS patients. Furthermore, ITD and D835Mt in the FLT3 gene were found in 17 (12.6%) and 8 (5.9%) of these 135 patients, respectively. The differences between patients with FLT3-ITD and the wild-type allele were significant for 3-year OS (35.3% and 84.3%, P < 0.0000001), DFS (40.0% and 66.9%, P < 0.003), and RR (52.4% and 30.3%, P < 0.005). Coduplication of both genes was found in only 3 (1.9%) patients. Conclusion. AML patients with FLT3-ITD, but not D835Mt, showed a poor prognosis. AML patients with MLL-PTD were also correlated with poor prognosis in this study.
- Tandem duplication
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health