Between April 2004 and December 2010, we conducted a prospective randomized controlled study comparing tamibarotene with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in the maintenance therapy of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and here report the final results of this study with a median follow-up of 7.3 years. Of 344 eligible patients who had received ATRA and chemotherapy, 319 (93%) achieved complete remission (CR). After completion of three courses of consolidation chemotherapy, 269 patients in molecular remission underwent maintenance randomization, 135 to ATRA (45 mg/m 2 daily), and 134 to tamibarotene (6 mg/m 2 daily) for 14 days every 3 months for 2 years. The primary endpoint was relapse-free survival (RFS). The 7-year RFS was 84% in the ATRA arm and 93% in the tamibarotene arm (p = 0.027, HR = 0.44, 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.93). The difference was prominent in high-risk patients with initial leukocytes ≥ 10.0 × 10 9 /L (62% vs. 89%; p = 0.034). Tamibarotene was significantly superior to ATRA by decreasing relapse in high-risk patients. Overall survival after randomization did not differ (96% vs. 97%; p = 0.520). Secondary hematopoietic disorders developed in nine patients, secondary malignancies in 11, and grade 3 or more late cardiac comorbidities in three. These late complications did not differ between the two arms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research