Bridged bicyclic metallacyclopentenes generated from the [4 + 2] cycloaddition of metallacyclopentadienes with alkenes have been proposed as reactive intermediates in the course of [2 + 2 + 2] annulation reactions. Recently a collection of alkoxide-directed Ti-mediated [2 + 2 + 2] annulation reactions have been discovered for the synthesis of densely functionalized hydrindanes, where the bridged bicyclic metallacyclopentenes from intramolecular [4 + 2] were treated as fleeting intermediates en route to cyclohexadiene products formed by formal cheletropic extrusion of Ti(Oi-Pr)2. In studies aimed at understanding the course of these organometallic cascade reactions it was later discovered that these bridged bicyclic intermediates can be trapped by various elimination processes. Here, we have realized metallacycle-mediated annulation reactions for the assembly of angularly substituted decalins - structural motifs that are ubiquitous in natural products and molecules of pharmaceutical relevance. In addition to defining the basic annulation reaction we have discovered a surprising stability associated with the complex organometallic intermediates generated in the course of this coupling process and document here the ability to control the fate of such species. Ligand-induced cheletropic extrusion of the titanium center delivers cyclohexadiene-containing products, while several distinct protonation events have been identified to realize polycyclic products that contain three new stereocenters (one of which is the angular quaternary center that is a hallmark of alkoxide-directed titanium-mediated [2 + 2 + 2] annulation reactions). Examples of this metallacycle-mediated annulation reaction are provided to demonstrate that a range of stereodefined fused bicyclo[4.4.0]decanes are accessible, including those that contain aromatic and aliphatic substituents, and an empirical model is presented to accompany the observations made. (Chemical Equation Presented).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry