Background and Aim: Reduced expression in immortalized cells/dickkopf-3 (REIC/DKK3) is a reported tumor suppressor gene and has potential to become an innovative therapy for various cancers. We examined the antitumor immunological effects of human REIC/DKK3 protein against pancreatic cancer. Methods: Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, mammalian target of rapamycin, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 by REIC/DKK3 protein was assessed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells using immunoblotting. Pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1 and MIA Paca-2) were cocultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the anticancer effects of REIC/DKK3 protein were assessed using the methyl thiazole tetrazolium, cytotoxicity, and enzyme-linked immunospot assays. The antitumor immunological effects of the combined treatment with REIC/DKK3 protein and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also assessed in a pancreatic cancer model using non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Results: The REIC/DKK3 protein activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, mammalian target of rapamycin, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. REIC/DKK3 protein inhibited in vitro cancer cell viability and enhanced cytotoxicity when incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. REIC/DKK3 protein induced significant production of interferon gamma from lymphocytes incubated with pancreatic cancer cells, indicating that CD8+ T cells were activated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells when cocultured with AsPC-1 and MIA Paca-2 in the presence of REIC/DKK3 protein. Combined treatment with REIC/DKK3 protein and peripheral blood mononuclear cells produced in vivo anticancer immunostimulatory effects on pancreatic cancer cells. Conclusions: The REIC/DKK3 protein and peripheral blood mononuclear cells synergistically enhanced anticancer immunological effects against pancreatic cancer cells. The observed immunomodulatory effect of combined treatment likely occurs in adenovirus-mediated REIC/DKK3 gene therapy and provides important clues to the therapeutic mechanisms involving immune cells.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia)|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 1 2016|
- Immune response
- Pancreatic cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas