Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from the Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections to Antibiotics (1987)

Hideo Ikemoto, Kazuyoshi Watanabe, Nozomu Kosakai, Yasuyuki Hayashi, Toyoko oguri, Takahito Kondou, Akira Saitou, Hidemi Matsumiya, Kyoko Ueda, Tsugio Terai, Yasuo Tanno, Kiyo Nishioka, Masaaki Arakawa, Kouichi Wada, Kenichi Igarashi, Yoshinori Shimazu, Minoru Yakata, Kyoko Ozaki, Osamu Sekine, Nobuki AokiHiroshi Ohshima, Kyoko Watanabe, Hiroichi Tanimoto, Kouichiro Nakada, Yoshitaka Nakamori, Naohiko Chonabayashi, Ryuou Nakatani, Kunihiko Yoshimura, Hiroko Sugi, Junzaburo Kabe, Kouichiro Kudo, Yumiko Yamamoto, Takeshi Uzawa, Shizuo Tamura, Jun Okada, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Hiroaki Takeda, Hiroshi Oshitani, Shin Kawai, Kaoru Shimada, Akira Ito, Youichiro Kaminaga, Rinzou Soejima, Jiro Hino, Masayuki Andou, Moritaka Suga, Nobuhisa Yamane, Masakazu Tosaka, Kouhei Hara, Keizo Yamaguchi, Kazuyuki Sugawara, Kazunori Shimoguchi, Masaru Nasu, Jun Goto, Hideaki Shigeno, Youichiro Goto, Morio Ito, Hiroshi Miyako, Kouichi Sugawara, Atsushi Saitou, Nobuchika Kusano, Jun Igari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Since 1981, in cooperation with research institutions across the nation, Ikemoto, et al. have been collecting clinical isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections and conducting an annual retrospective survey of patients' background factors and of isolated strains and their sensitivities to various antibacterial agents and antibiotics. In the period from October, 1987 to September, 1988, 17 institutions participated in the survey and a total of 706 strains which were demonstrated to be causative organisms were isolated from 562 patients with respiratory tract infections. Strains were mostly isolated from the sputum. The taxonomic breakdown of these strains was: Staphylococcus aureus (69 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (120), Haemophilus influenzae (170), Mucoid-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42), Non-mucoid-producing P.aeruginosa (87), Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (35), Brahamella catarrharis (72), etc. Of these strains, 629 were used to determine MICs of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics for susceptibility analyses. Relationships between patient backgrounds and diagnoses and between infections diseases and causative organisms were also investigated. Most of the major causative organisms, such as H. influenzae and P. aeruginosa, showed no substantial changes from previous years, with regard to their sensitivities to antibiotic agent, but S. aureus, particularly methicillin/cephem-resistant strains of S. aureus (MCRSA) showed somewhat lower sensitivity to β-lactams and, as in recent years, to ofloxacin, a new quinolone drug, as well. Regarding background factors of patients, the age distribution was heavily concentrated in age brackets of 50 years and older, thus patients in these age group accounted for 75.2% of all the patients, which was comparable to 11.5% in 1985 and 11.9% in 1986. Among infections encountered, bacterial pneumonia was most frequent at 28.3%,followed by chronic bronchitis (21.2%) and bronchiectasis (16.0%). Bacterial pneumonia was actually the most frequent, throughout the entire age groups accounting for 34.3% of patients up to 29 years, 26.6% in the group of 30~69 years and 30.7% in patients aged 70 years and older. Chronic bronchitis was next most frequent and accounted for 20.0%, 26.4% and 30.7% among the three age groups, respectively. Breaking down clinical isolates by diagnosis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were isolated frequently from most of the infectious diseases. Among 331 strains isolated as causative organisms at during symptomatic periods of infection in bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis and diffuse panbronchiolitis, H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae were frequent, accounting for 29.6%, 23.9% and 16.6% of all the isolates, respectively. In bacterial pneumonia, S. aureus was frequently detected in addition to the above species. Chronologically, the frequency of H. influenzae has been declining year by year, while the frequency of S. pneumoniae has been steadily increasing. Among Gram-negative bacteria, B. catarrhalis is gradually gaining ground thus demanding our attention. Regarding the bacteria isolated before the first administration of antibacterial agents or antibiotics and the classification of the isolates by the duration of treatment, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were most frequent, accounting for 29.8% and 18.6%, respectively, but the incidence of both declined gradually in accordance with the duration of treatment. Conversely, the frequency of P. aeruginosa increased from 15.2% prior to administration to 39.0% on day 15 of treatment. This retrospective survey will be continued, taking into account new antibacterial and antibiotic agents that will be developed in the years to come.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-180
Number of pages34
JournalThe Japanese Journal of Antibiotics
Volume43
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Respiratory Tract Infections
Haemophilus influenzae
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Bacteria
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Bacterial Pneumonia
Staphylococcus aureus
Chronic Bronchitis
Bronchiectasis
Age Groups
Infection
Lactams
Methicillin Resistance
Ofloxacin
Quinolones
Age Distribution
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Sputum
Gram-Negative Bacteria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from the Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections to Antibiotics (1987). / Ikemoto, Hideo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kosakai, Nozomu; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; oguri, Toyoko; Kondou, Takahito; Saitou, Akira; Matsumiya, Hidemi; Ueda, Kyoko; Terai, Tsugio; Tanno, Yasuo; Nishioka, Kiyo; Arakawa, Masaaki; Wada, Kouichi; Igarashi, Kenichi; Shimazu, Yoshinori; Yakata, Minoru; Ozaki, Kyoko; Sekine, Osamu; Aoki, Nobuki; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Tanimoto, Hiroichi; Nakada, Kouichiro; Nakamori, Yoshitaka; Chonabayashi, Naohiko; Nakatani, Ryuou; Yoshimura, Kunihiko; Sugi, Hiroko; Kabe, Junzaburo; Kudo, Kouichiro; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Uzawa, Takeshi; Tamura, Shizuo; Okada, Jun; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Hiroaki; Oshitani, Hiroshi; Kawai, Shin; Shimada, Kaoru; Ito, Akira; Kaminaga, Youichiro; Soejima, Rinzou; Hino, Jiro; Andou, Masayuki; Suga, Moritaka; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Tosaka, Masakazu; Hara, Kouhei; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Sugawara, Kazuyuki; Shimoguchi, Kazunori; Nasu, Masaru; Goto, Jun; Shigeno, Hideaki; Goto, Youichiro; Ito, Morio; Miyako, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Kouichi; Saitou, Atsushi; Kusano, Nobuchika; Igari, Jun.

In: The Japanese Journal of Antibiotics, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1990, p. 147-180.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ikemoto, H, Watanabe, K, Kosakai, N, Hayashi, Y, oguri, T, Kondou, T, Saitou, A, Matsumiya, H, Ueda, K, Terai, T, Tanno, Y, Nishioka, K, Arakawa, M, Wada, K, Igarashi, K, Shimazu, Y, Yakata, M, Ozaki, K, Sekine, O, Aoki, N, Ohshima, H, Watanabe, K, Tanimoto, H, Nakada, K, Nakamori, Y, Chonabayashi, N, Nakatani, R, Yoshimura, K, Sugi, H, Kabe, J, Kudo, K, Yamamoto, Y, Uzawa, T, Tamura, S, Okada, J, Kobayashi, H, Takeda, H, Oshitani, H, Kawai, S, Shimada, K, Ito, A, Kaminaga, Y, Soejima, R, Hino, J, Andou, M, Suga, M, Yamane, N, Tosaka, M, Hara, K, Yamaguchi, K, Sugawara, K, Shimoguchi, K, Nasu, M, Goto, J, Shigeno, H, Goto, Y, Ito, M, Miyako, H, Sugawara, K, Saitou, A, Kusano, N & Igari, J 1990, 'Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from the Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections to Antibiotics (1987)', The Japanese Journal of Antibiotics, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 147-180. https://doi.org/10.11553/antibiotics1968b.43.147
Ikemoto, Hideo ; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi ; Kosakai, Nozomu ; Hayashi, Yasuyuki ; oguri, Toyoko ; Kondou, Takahito ; Saitou, Akira ; Matsumiya, Hidemi ; Ueda, Kyoko ; Terai, Tsugio ; Tanno, Yasuo ; Nishioka, Kiyo ; Arakawa, Masaaki ; Wada, Kouichi ; Igarashi, Kenichi ; Shimazu, Yoshinori ; Yakata, Minoru ; Ozaki, Kyoko ; Sekine, Osamu ; Aoki, Nobuki ; Ohshima, Hiroshi ; Watanabe, Kyoko ; Tanimoto, Hiroichi ; Nakada, Kouichiro ; Nakamori, Yoshitaka ; Chonabayashi, Naohiko ; Nakatani, Ryuou ; Yoshimura, Kunihiko ; Sugi, Hiroko ; Kabe, Junzaburo ; Kudo, Kouichiro ; Yamamoto, Yumiko ; Uzawa, Takeshi ; Tamura, Shizuo ; Okada, Jun ; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki ; Takeda, Hiroaki ; Oshitani, Hiroshi ; Kawai, Shin ; Shimada, Kaoru ; Ito, Akira ; Kaminaga, Youichiro ; Soejima, Rinzou ; Hino, Jiro ; Andou, Masayuki ; Suga, Moritaka ; Yamane, Nobuhisa ; Tosaka, Masakazu ; Hara, Kouhei ; Yamaguchi, Keizo ; Sugawara, Kazuyuki ; Shimoguchi, Kazunori ; Nasu, Masaru ; Goto, Jun ; Shigeno, Hideaki ; Goto, Youichiro ; Ito, Morio ; Miyako, Hiroshi ; Sugawara, Kouichi ; Saitou, Atsushi ; Kusano, Nobuchika ; Igari, Jun. / Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from the Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections to Antibiotics (1987). In: The Japanese Journal of Antibiotics. 1990 ; Vol. 43, No. 1. pp. 147-180.
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abstract = "Since 1981, in cooperation with research institutions across the nation, Ikemoto, et al. have been collecting clinical isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections and conducting an annual retrospective survey of patients' background factors and of isolated strains and their sensitivities to various antibacterial agents and antibiotics. In the period from October, 1987 to September, 1988, 17 institutions participated in the survey and a total of 706 strains which were demonstrated to be causative organisms were isolated from 562 patients with respiratory tract infections. Strains were mostly isolated from the sputum. The taxonomic breakdown of these strains was: Staphylococcus aureus (69 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (120), Haemophilus influenzae (170), Mucoid-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42), Non-mucoid-producing P.aeruginosa (87), Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (35), Brahamella catarrharis (72), etc. Of these strains, 629 were used to determine MICs of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics for susceptibility analyses. Relationships between patient backgrounds and diagnoses and between infections diseases and causative organisms were also investigated. Most of the major causative organisms, such as H. influenzae and P. aeruginosa, showed no substantial changes from previous years, with regard to their sensitivities to antibiotic agent, but S. aureus, particularly methicillin/cephem-resistant strains of S. aureus (MCRSA) showed somewhat lower sensitivity to β-lactams and, as in recent years, to ofloxacin, a new quinolone drug, as well. Regarding background factors of patients, the age distribution was heavily concentrated in age brackets of 50 years and older, thus patients in these age group accounted for 75.2{\%} of all the patients, which was comparable to 11.5{\%} in 1985 and 11.9{\%} in 1986. Among infections encountered, bacterial pneumonia was most frequent at 28.3{\%},followed by chronic bronchitis (21.2{\%}) and bronchiectasis (16.0{\%}). Bacterial pneumonia was actually the most frequent, throughout the entire age groups accounting for 34.3{\%} of patients up to 29 years, 26.6{\%} in the group of 30~69 years and 30.7{\%} in patients aged 70 years and older. Chronic bronchitis was next most frequent and accounted for 20.0{\%}, 26.4{\%} and 30.7{\%} among the three age groups, respectively. Breaking down clinical isolates by diagnosis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were isolated frequently from most of the infectious diseases. Among 331 strains isolated as causative organisms at during symptomatic periods of infection in bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis and diffuse panbronchiolitis, H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae were frequent, accounting for 29.6{\%}, 23.9{\%} and 16.6{\%} of all the isolates, respectively. In bacterial pneumonia, S. aureus was frequently detected in addition to the above species. Chronologically, the frequency of H. influenzae has been declining year by year, while the frequency of S. pneumoniae has been steadily increasing. Among Gram-negative bacteria, B. catarrhalis is gradually gaining ground thus demanding our attention. Regarding the bacteria isolated before the first administration of antibacterial agents or antibiotics and the classification of the isolates by the duration of treatment, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were most frequent, accounting for 29.8{\%} and 18.6{\%}, respectively, but the incidence of both declined gradually in accordance with the duration of treatment. Conversely, the frequency of P. aeruginosa increased from 15.2{\%} prior to administration to 39.0{\%} on day 15 of treatment. This retrospective survey will be continued, taking into account new antibacterial and antibiotic agents that will be developed in the years to come.",
author = "Hideo Ikemoto and Kazuyoshi Watanabe and Nozomu Kosakai and Yasuyuki Hayashi and Toyoko oguri and Takahito Kondou and Akira Saitou and Hidemi Matsumiya and Kyoko Ueda and Tsugio Terai and Yasuo Tanno and Kiyo Nishioka and Masaaki Arakawa and Kouichi Wada and Kenichi Igarashi and Yoshinori Shimazu and Minoru Yakata and Kyoko Ozaki and Osamu Sekine and Nobuki Aoki and Hiroshi Ohshima and Kyoko Watanabe and Hiroichi Tanimoto and Kouichiro Nakada and Yoshitaka Nakamori and Naohiko Chonabayashi and Ryuou Nakatani and Kunihiko Yoshimura and Hiroko Sugi and Junzaburo Kabe and Kouichiro Kudo and Yumiko Yamamoto and Takeshi Uzawa and Shizuo Tamura and Jun Okada and Hiroyuki Kobayashi and Hiroaki Takeda and Hiroshi Oshitani and Shin Kawai and Kaoru Shimada and Akira Ito and Youichiro Kaminaga and Rinzou Soejima and Jiro Hino and Masayuki Andou and Moritaka Suga and Nobuhisa Yamane and Masakazu Tosaka and Kouhei Hara and Keizo Yamaguchi and Kazuyuki Sugawara and Kazunori Shimoguchi and Masaru Nasu and Jun Goto and Hideaki Shigeno and Youichiro Goto and Morio Ito and Hiroshi Miyako and Kouichi Sugawara and Atsushi Saitou and Nobuchika Kusano and Jun Igari",
year = "1990",
doi = "10.11553/antibiotics1968b.43.147",
language = "English",
volume = "43",
pages = "147--180",
journal = "The Journal of antibiotics. Ser. B",
issn = "0368-2781",
publisher = "Japan Antibiotics Research Association",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from the Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections to Antibiotics (1987)

AU - Ikemoto, Hideo

AU - Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

AU - Kosakai, Nozomu

AU - Hayashi, Yasuyuki

AU - oguri, Toyoko

AU - Kondou, Takahito

AU - Saitou, Akira

AU - Matsumiya, Hidemi

AU - Ueda, Kyoko

AU - Terai, Tsugio

AU - Tanno, Yasuo

AU - Nishioka, Kiyo

AU - Arakawa, Masaaki

AU - Wada, Kouichi

AU - Igarashi, Kenichi

AU - Shimazu, Yoshinori

AU - Yakata, Minoru

AU - Ozaki, Kyoko

AU - Sekine, Osamu

AU - Aoki, Nobuki

AU - Ohshima, Hiroshi

AU - Watanabe, Kyoko

AU - Tanimoto, Hiroichi

AU - Nakada, Kouichiro

AU - Nakamori, Yoshitaka

AU - Chonabayashi, Naohiko

AU - Nakatani, Ryuou

AU - Yoshimura, Kunihiko

AU - Sugi, Hiroko

AU - Kabe, Junzaburo

AU - Kudo, Kouichiro

AU - Yamamoto, Yumiko

AU - Uzawa, Takeshi

AU - Tamura, Shizuo

AU - Okada, Jun

AU - Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

AU - Takeda, Hiroaki

AU - Oshitani, Hiroshi

AU - Kawai, Shin

AU - Shimada, Kaoru

AU - Ito, Akira

AU - Kaminaga, Youichiro

AU - Soejima, Rinzou

AU - Hino, Jiro

AU - Andou, Masayuki

AU - Suga, Moritaka

AU - Yamane, Nobuhisa

AU - Tosaka, Masakazu

AU - Hara, Kouhei

AU - Yamaguchi, Keizo

AU - Sugawara, Kazuyuki

AU - Shimoguchi, Kazunori

AU - Nasu, Masaru

AU - Goto, Jun

AU - Shigeno, Hideaki

AU - Goto, Youichiro

AU - Ito, Morio

AU - Miyako, Hiroshi

AU - Sugawara, Kouichi

AU - Saitou, Atsushi

AU - Kusano, Nobuchika

AU - Igari, Jun

PY - 1990

Y1 - 1990

N2 - Since 1981, in cooperation with research institutions across the nation, Ikemoto, et al. have been collecting clinical isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections and conducting an annual retrospective survey of patients' background factors and of isolated strains and their sensitivities to various antibacterial agents and antibiotics. In the period from October, 1987 to September, 1988, 17 institutions participated in the survey and a total of 706 strains which were demonstrated to be causative organisms were isolated from 562 patients with respiratory tract infections. Strains were mostly isolated from the sputum. The taxonomic breakdown of these strains was: Staphylococcus aureus (69 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (120), Haemophilus influenzae (170), Mucoid-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42), Non-mucoid-producing P.aeruginosa (87), Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (35), Brahamella catarrharis (72), etc. Of these strains, 629 were used to determine MICs of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics for susceptibility analyses. Relationships between patient backgrounds and diagnoses and between infections diseases and causative organisms were also investigated. Most of the major causative organisms, such as H. influenzae and P. aeruginosa, showed no substantial changes from previous years, with regard to their sensitivities to antibiotic agent, but S. aureus, particularly methicillin/cephem-resistant strains of S. aureus (MCRSA) showed somewhat lower sensitivity to β-lactams and, as in recent years, to ofloxacin, a new quinolone drug, as well. Regarding background factors of patients, the age distribution was heavily concentrated in age brackets of 50 years and older, thus patients in these age group accounted for 75.2% of all the patients, which was comparable to 11.5% in 1985 and 11.9% in 1986. Among infections encountered, bacterial pneumonia was most frequent at 28.3%,followed by chronic bronchitis (21.2%) and bronchiectasis (16.0%). Bacterial pneumonia was actually the most frequent, throughout the entire age groups accounting for 34.3% of patients up to 29 years, 26.6% in the group of 30~69 years and 30.7% in patients aged 70 years and older. Chronic bronchitis was next most frequent and accounted for 20.0%, 26.4% and 30.7% among the three age groups, respectively. Breaking down clinical isolates by diagnosis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were isolated frequently from most of the infectious diseases. Among 331 strains isolated as causative organisms at during symptomatic periods of infection in bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis and diffuse panbronchiolitis, H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae were frequent, accounting for 29.6%, 23.9% and 16.6% of all the isolates, respectively. In bacterial pneumonia, S. aureus was frequently detected in addition to the above species. Chronologically, the frequency of H. influenzae has been declining year by year, while the frequency of S. pneumoniae has been steadily increasing. Among Gram-negative bacteria, B. catarrhalis is gradually gaining ground thus demanding our attention. Regarding the bacteria isolated before the first administration of antibacterial agents or antibiotics and the classification of the isolates by the duration of treatment, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were most frequent, accounting for 29.8% and 18.6%, respectively, but the incidence of both declined gradually in accordance with the duration of treatment. Conversely, the frequency of P. aeruginosa increased from 15.2% prior to administration to 39.0% on day 15 of treatment. This retrospective survey will be continued, taking into account new antibacterial and antibiotic agents that will be developed in the years to come.

AB - Since 1981, in cooperation with research institutions across the nation, Ikemoto, et al. have been collecting clinical isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections and conducting an annual retrospective survey of patients' background factors and of isolated strains and their sensitivities to various antibacterial agents and antibiotics. In the period from October, 1987 to September, 1988, 17 institutions participated in the survey and a total of 706 strains which were demonstrated to be causative organisms were isolated from 562 patients with respiratory tract infections. Strains were mostly isolated from the sputum. The taxonomic breakdown of these strains was: Staphylococcus aureus (69 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (120), Haemophilus influenzae (170), Mucoid-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42), Non-mucoid-producing P.aeruginosa (87), Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (35), Brahamella catarrharis (72), etc. Of these strains, 629 were used to determine MICs of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics for susceptibility analyses. Relationships between patient backgrounds and diagnoses and between infections diseases and causative organisms were also investigated. Most of the major causative organisms, such as H. influenzae and P. aeruginosa, showed no substantial changes from previous years, with regard to their sensitivities to antibiotic agent, but S. aureus, particularly methicillin/cephem-resistant strains of S. aureus (MCRSA) showed somewhat lower sensitivity to β-lactams and, as in recent years, to ofloxacin, a new quinolone drug, as well. Regarding background factors of patients, the age distribution was heavily concentrated in age brackets of 50 years and older, thus patients in these age group accounted for 75.2% of all the patients, which was comparable to 11.5% in 1985 and 11.9% in 1986. Among infections encountered, bacterial pneumonia was most frequent at 28.3%,followed by chronic bronchitis (21.2%) and bronchiectasis (16.0%). Bacterial pneumonia was actually the most frequent, throughout the entire age groups accounting for 34.3% of patients up to 29 years, 26.6% in the group of 30~69 years and 30.7% in patients aged 70 years and older. Chronic bronchitis was next most frequent and accounted for 20.0%, 26.4% and 30.7% among the three age groups, respectively. Breaking down clinical isolates by diagnosis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were isolated frequently from most of the infectious diseases. Among 331 strains isolated as causative organisms at during symptomatic periods of infection in bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis and diffuse panbronchiolitis, H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae were frequent, accounting for 29.6%, 23.9% and 16.6% of all the isolates, respectively. In bacterial pneumonia, S. aureus was frequently detected in addition to the above species. Chronologically, the frequency of H. influenzae has been declining year by year, while the frequency of S. pneumoniae has been steadily increasing. Among Gram-negative bacteria, B. catarrhalis is gradually gaining ground thus demanding our attention. Regarding the bacteria isolated before the first administration of antibacterial agents or antibiotics and the classification of the isolates by the duration of treatment, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were most frequent, accounting for 29.8% and 18.6%, respectively, but the incidence of both declined gradually in accordance with the duration of treatment. Conversely, the frequency of P. aeruginosa increased from 15.2% prior to administration to 39.0% on day 15 of treatment. This retrospective survey will be continued, taking into account new antibacterial and antibiotic agents that will be developed in the years to come.

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