BACKGROUND - All 3 palliation strategies, Norwood, Sano, and Hybrid, currently used for hypoplastic left heart syndrome pose a risk of myocardial injury at different times and through different mechanisms. We sought to compare these strategies to understand longitudinal differences in interstage ventricular dysfunction and their subsequent impact on transplant-free survival and atrioventricular valve regurgitation (AVVR) as well as the relationship between adverse events and ventricular function. METHODS AND RESULTS - Serial echocardiographic reports and clinical data were reviewed for 138 children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent stage I surgical palliation (Sano: 11; Norwood: 73; Hybrid: 54) between 2004 and 2011. Stage II palliation was achieved in 92 (67%) patients (Sano: 7; Norwood: 51; Hybrid: 34). Interstage transplant-free survival, ventricular dysfunction, and AVVR were equivalent among palliation strategies. Patients with preserved ventricular function had a higher rate of transplant-free survival and freedom from AVVR, regardless of palliation strategy. Patients who had cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (adverse events) experienced more transient and persistent ventricular dysfunction compared to those without adverse events. Surgical palliation strategies were not identified as risk factors for ventricular dysfunction or AVVR. CONCLUSIONS - Surgical palliation strategy does not affect mortality, interstage ventricular function, or interstage AVVR in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Therefore, the different timing and mechanisms of myocardial injury among palliation strategies do not affect outcomes. Ventricular dysfunction adversely affects transplant-free survival and atrioventricular valve function. Adverse events are associated with the development of ventricular dysfunction. To improve outcomes, interstage treatment should focus on the preservation of ventricular function.
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
- Single ventricle
- Ventricular function
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine