Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by several transcription factors such as the CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). Here, we demonstrate that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) suppressed differentiation into mature adipocytes via multiple signaling pathways. When C3H10T1/2, a mesenchymal stem cell line, was treated with LIPUS (3.0 MHz, 60 mW/cm2) for 20 minutes once a day for 4 days during adipogenesis, and both the number of lipid droplets and the gene expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα were significantly decreased. Furthermore, LIPUS treatment decreased the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and also that of Akt and ERK1/2, which are located downstream of this receptor. Next, we showed that LIPUS suppressed the gene expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), which is an adipokine produced by mature adipocytes, as well as that of angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) and angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) during adipogenesis of pre-adipogenic 3T3-L1 cells. Next, the translocation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) into the nucleus of 3T3-L1 cells was promoted by LIPUS, leading to upregulation of CCN family protein 2 (CCN2), a cellular communication network factor. Moreover, forced expression of CCN2 in 3T3-L1 cells decreased PPARγ gene expression, but it did not increase alkaline phosphatase and osterix gene expression. Finally, gene silencing of CCN2 in C3H10T1/2 cells diminished the effect of LIPUS on the gene expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα. These findings suggest that LIPUS suppressed adipogenesis through inhibition of insulin signaling and decreased PPARγ expression via increased CCN2 production, resulting in a possible decrease of mature adipocytes.
- CCN family 2/connective tissue growth factor
- insulin signaling
- low-intensity pulsed ultrasound
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology