Purpose To evaluate vitrectomy with subretinal tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) injection, and air tamponade, followed by intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for submacular hemorrhage in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Design Prospective, interventional case series. Methods setting: Two clinics. patients: Fifteen eyes of 15 consecutive patients (mean age 72 ± 7 years) with submacular hemorrhage attributable to PCV. inclusion criteria: PCV diagnosis with unorganized submacular hemorrhage greater than 500 μm thick. exclusion criteria: Submacular hemorrhage attributable to macular diseases (eg, high myopia, typical age-related macular degeneration, retinal angiomatous proliferation, and angioid streaks). intervention: Vitrectomy with 4000 IU t-PA injected subretinally and fluid/air exchange. Patients remained facedown for 3 days after surgery. Anti-VEGF drugs were administered as exudative changes required. main outcome measures: Submacular hemorrhage displacement from the macula and changes in best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs). Results Mean time from onset to surgery was 9.5 ± 4.5 (range, 5-21) days. Mean follow-up period was 9.4 ± 3.1 (range, 6-17) months. Surgery successfully displaced submacular hemorrhages from the macula in all eyes. Mean BCVA at baseline (0.98 ± 0.44) had improved significantly both 1 month after surgery (0.41 ± 0.25, P <.01) and at final visits (0.23 ± 0.25, P <.001). In all eyes, exudative retinal changes relapsed after surgery but were completely resolved by anti-VEGF injections. No complications occurred in any patients. Conclusion Treating submacular hemorrhage with vitrectomy and subretinal t-PA injection, followed by intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, is a promising strategy for improving visual acuity in PCV patients warranting further investigation.
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