Submacular hemorrhage in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy treated by vitrectomy and subretinal tissue plasminogen activator

Shuhei Kimura, Yuki Morizane, Mio Hosokawa, Yusuke Shiode, Tetsuhiro Kawata, Shinichiro Doi, Ryo Matoba, Mika Hosogi, Atsushi Fujiwara, Yasushi Inoue, Fumio Shiraga

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42 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose To evaluate vitrectomy with subretinal tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) injection, and air tamponade, followed by intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for submacular hemorrhage in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Design Prospective, interventional case series. Methods setting: Two clinics. patients: Fifteen eyes of 15 consecutive patients (mean age 72 ± 7 years) with submacular hemorrhage attributable to PCV. inclusion criteria: PCV diagnosis with unorganized submacular hemorrhage greater than 500 μm thick. exclusion criteria: Submacular hemorrhage attributable to macular diseases (eg, high myopia, typical age-related macular degeneration, retinal angiomatous proliferation, and angioid streaks). intervention: Vitrectomy with 4000 IU t-PA injected subretinally and fluid/air exchange. Patients remained facedown for 3 days after surgery. Anti-VEGF drugs were administered as exudative changes required. main outcome measures: Submacular hemorrhage displacement from the macula and changes in best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs). Results Mean time from onset to surgery was 9.5 ± 4.5 (range, 5-21) days. Mean follow-up period was 9.4 ± 3.1 (range, 6-17) months. Surgery successfully displaced submacular hemorrhages from the macula in all eyes. Mean BCVA at baseline (0.98 ± 0.44) had improved significantly both 1 month after surgery (0.41 ± 0.25, P <.01) and at final visits (0.23 ± 0.25, P <.001). In all eyes, exudative retinal changes relapsed after surgery but were completely resolved by anti-VEGF injections. No complications occurred in any patients. Conclusion Treating submacular hemorrhage with vitrectomy and subretinal t-PA injection, followed by intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, is a promising strategy for improving visual acuity in PCV patients warranting further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)683-689.e1
JournalAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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