Spontaneous dissection and rupture of the iliac artery is an unusual finding in patients with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD). We report the case of a patient with FMD who required emergent surgery because of rupture of an iliac artery dissection, and review 9 previously reported cases of iliac artery dissection associated with FMD. A 30-year-old man had abdominal pain, and went into shock. Angiograms revealed dissection of the left common iliac artery with extravasation. At emergent surgery the rupture site was in the proximal left common iliac artery and extended to the left external iliac artery. Interposition of the diseased artery with a Dacron graft was attempted, but cardiac arrest occurred, and resuscitation was unsuccessful. Pathologic examination showed typical characteristics of diffuse medial FMD. Ten cases (5 male and 5 female patients), including the present case, with dissection of iliac arteries associated with FMD have been reported. Median patient age was 45 years (range, 29-56 years). Three of the 10 patients had acute onset of symptoms, and the remainder had gradual development of intermittent claudication or groin pain. Only the present case had evidence of rupture. The site of dissection was in the external iliac artery in 8 patients and the common iliac artery in 2 patients. Anatomic bypass or interposition of the diseased artery was performed in 8 patients; the others received conservative treatment. There was no mortality in the 9 previously reported cases. Fatal acute dissection and rupture of the common iliac artery occurred in a patient with FMD, even though the clinical course of this disease is relatively benign. FMD should be considered the cause of dissection and rupture of the iliac artery in a patient with symptoms but of non-atherosclerotic age.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine