Sorghum Ionomics Reveals the Functional SbHMA3a Allele that Limits Excess Cadmium Accumulation in Grains

Fiona Wacera Wahinya, Kiyoshi Yamazaki, Zihuan Jing, Tsuneaki Takami, Takehiro Kamiya, Hiromi Kajiya-Kanegae, Hideki Takanashi, Hiroyoshi Iwata, Nobuhiro Tsutsumi, Toru Fujiwara, Wataru Sakamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Understanding uptake and redistribution of essential minerals or sequestering of toxic elements is important for optimized crop production. Although the mechanisms controlling mineral transport have been elucidated in rice and other species, little is understood in sorghum-an important C4 cereal crop. Here, we assessed the genetic factors that govern grain ionome profiles in sorghum using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between BTx623 and NOG (Takakibi). Pairwise correlation and clustering analysis of 22 elements, measured in sorghum grains harvested under greenhouse conditions, indicated that the parental lines, as well as the RILs, show different ionomes. In particular, BTx623 accumulated significantly higher levels of cadmium (Cd) than NOG, because of differential root-to-shoot translocation factors between the two lines. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed a prominent QTL for grain Cd concentration on chromosome 2. Detailed analysis identified SbHMA3a, encoding a P1B-type ATPase heavy metal transporter, as responsible for low Cd accumulation in grains; the NOG allele encoded a functional HMA3 transporter (SbHMA3a-NOG) whose Cd-transporting activity was confirmed by heterologous expression in yeast. BTx623 possessed a truncated, loss-of-function SbHMA3a allele. The functionality of SbHMA3a in NOG was confirmed by Cd concentrations of F2 grains derived from the reciprocal cross, in which the NOG allele behaved in a dominant manner. We concluded that SbHMA3a-NOG is a Cd transporter that sequesters excess Cd in root tissues, as shown in other HMA3s. Our findings will facilitate the isolation of breeding cultivars with low Cd in grains or in exploiting high-Cd cultivars for phytoremediation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)713-728
Number of pages16
JournalPlant & cell physiology
Volume63
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 16 2022

Keywords

  • Cadmium
  • HMA3 transporter
  • Ionome
  • Quantitative trait locus
  • Recombinant inbred population
  • Sorghum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology

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