Snow Metamorphism and Albedo Process (SMAP) model for climate studies: Model validation using meteorological and snow impurity data measured at Sapporo, Japan

Masashi Niwano, Teruo Aoki, Katsuyuki Kuchiki, Masahiro Hosaka, Yuji Kodama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

[1] We developed a multilayered physical snowpack model named Snow Metamorphism and Albedo Process (SMAP), which is intended to be incorporated into general circulation models for climate simulations. To simulate realistic physical states of snowpack, SMAP incorporates a state-of-the-art physically based snow albedo model, which calculates snow albedo and solar heating profile in snowpack considering effects of snow grain size and snow impurities explicitly. We evaluated the performance of SMAP with meteorological and snow impurities (black carbon and dust) input data measured at Sapporo, Japan during two winters: 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, and found SMAP successfully reproduced all observed variations of physical properties of snowpack for both winters. We have thus confirmed that SMAP is suitable for climate simulations. With SMAP, we also investigated the effects of snow impurities on snowmelt at Sapporo during the two winters. We found that snowpack durations at Sapporo were shortened by 19 days during the 2007-2008 winter and by 16 days during the 2008-2009 winter due to radiative forcings caused by snow impurities. The estimated radiative forcings due to snow impurities during the accumulation periods were 3.7 W/m2 (it corresponds to albedo reduction in 0.05) and 3.2 W/m 2 (albedo reduction in 0.05) for the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 winters, respectively. While during the ablation periods they were 25.9 W/m2 (albedo reduction in 0.18) and 21.0 W/m2 (albedo reduction in 0.17) for each winter, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberF03008
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research
Volume117
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2012
Externally publishedYes

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model validation
snow
Snow
albedo
climate
Japan
metamorphism
Impurities
impurities
winter
snowpack
radiative forcing
solar heating
Soot
Solar heating
black carbon
Ablation
snowmelt
ablation
simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Geophysics

Cite this

Snow Metamorphism and Albedo Process (SMAP) model for climate studies : Model validation using meteorological and snow impurity data measured at Sapporo, Japan. / Niwano, Masashi; Aoki, Teruo; Kuchiki, Katsuyuki; Hosaka, Masahiro; Kodama, Yuji.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, No. 3, F03008, 01.09.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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