Background: Methods for determining the origin of BK virus (BKV)-infected cells (decoy cells) in clinical urine samples have not been established although they could enhance the diagnosis of BKV infection in immunocompromised patients. Methods: We performed simultaneous immunostaining with anti-S100P (a urothelial marker) and anti-SV40 antibodies in 66 clinical urine samples exhibiting SV40 positivity and a decoy-cell appearance on Papanicolaou staining. The clinical voided urine samples included seven cases of renal transplantation, 47 cases of cancer therapy and 12 cases of non-neoplastic disease. SurePath™ liquid-based cytology was used for the urine samples. Results: BKV-infected cells were categorized as SV40(+)/S100P(+) and SV40 (+)/S100p(-). SV40(+)/S100P(-) cells were found in 55 cases (83.4%); nine cases (13.6%) carried both SV40(+)/S100P(-) and SV40(+)/S100P(+) cells. The former were identified as BKV infection in renal tubules and the latter in both the renal tubules and urothelial epithelia. The remaining two cases (3.0%) had only SV40(+)/S100P(+) cells of urothelial origin. Conclusion: Simultaneous immunostaining with anti-S100P and anti-SV40 is a useful method for determining the origin of BKV-infected cells in clinical urine samples from immunocompromised patients such as renal transplantation recipients.
- BK virus-infected cells
- Simultaneous immunostaining
- Urine cytology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine