Short-term biological safety of a photoelectric dye used as a component of retinal prostheses

Kazuo Okamoto, Toshihiko Matsuo, Takayuki Tamaki, Akihito Uji, Hiroshi Ohtsuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have designed a new type of retinal prosthesis with a photoelectric dye that transfers photon energy to generate electric potentials. The purpose of this study was to test the safety of a photoelectric dye, 2-[2-[4-(dibutylami no)phenyl]ethenyl]-3-carboxymethylbenzothiazolium bromide (NK-5962), used for retinal prostheses. The retinal cells, derived from chick neurosensory retinas at the 12-day embryonic stage, were a mixed population of retinal neurons and glial cells, and were cultured for 2 days either under protection from light or under continuous light exposure at 230 lux for 9 h daily in the presence of the photoelectric dye at varying concentrations (1.6 × 10-5, 1.6 × 10-6, and 1.6 × 10-7 M) to assess cell viability by staining live cells and dead cells. Dispersed retinal pigment epithelial cells at the same embryonic stage were incubated with the photoelectric dye at varying concentrations (6.6 × 10-5, 6.6 × 10-6, and 6.6 × 10-7 M) for 4 h under protection from light or under continuous light exposure at 320 lux to assess cytotoxicity by measuring the activity of lactate dehydrogenase leaking from cells. The majority of retinal cells were alive with only a small percentage of dead cells under the dark condition or the light condition in the presence or the absence of the photoelectric dye. The percentage of dead cells was significantly smaller at higher concentrations of the photoelectric dye (P = 0.0183, two-factor analysis of variance), while the percentage of dead cells was not significantly different between the dark condition and the light condition (P = 0.3102). Percent cytotoxicity values were negative, indicating protective effects in all groups of retinal pigment epithelial cells incubated with varying concentrations of the photoelectric dye. The photoelectric dye showed no cytotoxicity to chick retinal cells or retinal pigment epithelial cells on short-term exposure. In addition, this photoelectric dye might have protective effects on both types of cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-51
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Artificial Organs
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2008

Fingerprint

Visual Prosthesis
Prosthetics
Coloring Agents
Dyes
Safety
Retinal Pigments
Cytotoxicity
Light
Cells
Pigments
Epithelial Cells
Retinal Neurons
Factor analysis
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Bromides
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Neurons
Energy Transfer
Photons
Neuroglia

Keywords

  • Cytotoxicity
  • Photoelectric dye
  • Polyethylene film
  • Retinal neurons
  • Retinal pigment epithelial cells
  • Retinal prosthesis
  • Safety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics

Cite this

Short-term biological safety of a photoelectric dye used as a component of retinal prostheses. / Okamoto, Kazuo; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Tamaki, Takayuki; Uji, Akihito; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi.

In: Journal of Artificial Organs, Vol. 11, No. 1, 04.2008, p. 45-51.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Okamoto, Kazuo ; Matsuo, Toshihiko ; Tamaki, Takayuki ; Uji, Akihito ; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi. / Short-term biological safety of a photoelectric dye used as a component of retinal prostheses. In: Journal of Artificial Organs. 2008 ; Vol. 11, No. 1. pp. 45-51.
@article{f43c63687a1e46c1a94ac11b12784cb5,
title = "Short-term biological safety of a photoelectric dye used as a component of retinal prostheses",
abstract = "We have designed a new type of retinal prosthesis with a photoelectric dye that transfers photon energy to generate electric potentials. The purpose of this study was to test the safety of a photoelectric dye, 2-[2-[4-(dibutylami no)phenyl]ethenyl]-3-carboxymethylbenzothiazolium bromide (NK-5962), used for retinal prostheses. The retinal cells, derived from chick neurosensory retinas at the 12-day embryonic stage, were a mixed population of retinal neurons and glial cells, and were cultured for 2 days either under protection from light or under continuous light exposure at 230 lux for 9 h daily in the presence of the photoelectric dye at varying concentrations (1.6 × 10-5, 1.6 × 10-6, and 1.6 × 10-7 M) to assess cell viability by staining live cells and dead cells. Dispersed retinal pigment epithelial cells at the same embryonic stage were incubated with the photoelectric dye at varying concentrations (6.6 × 10-5, 6.6 × 10-6, and 6.6 × 10-7 M) for 4 h under protection from light or under continuous light exposure at 320 lux to assess cytotoxicity by measuring the activity of lactate dehydrogenase leaking from cells. The majority of retinal cells were alive with only a small percentage of dead cells under the dark condition or the light condition in the presence or the absence of the photoelectric dye. The percentage of dead cells was significantly smaller at higher concentrations of the photoelectric dye (P = 0.0183, two-factor analysis of variance), while the percentage of dead cells was not significantly different between the dark condition and the light condition (P = 0.3102). Percent cytotoxicity values were negative, indicating protective effects in all groups of retinal pigment epithelial cells incubated with varying concentrations of the photoelectric dye. The photoelectric dye showed no cytotoxicity to chick retinal cells or retinal pigment epithelial cells on short-term exposure. In addition, this photoelectric dye might have protective effects on both types of cells.",
keywords = "Cytotoxicity, Photoelectric dye, Polyethylene film, Retinal neurons, Retinal pigment epithelial cells, Retinal prosthesis, Safety",
author = "Kazuo Okamoto and Toshihiko Matsuo and Takayuki Tamaki and Akihito Uji and Hiroshi Ohtsuki",
year = "2008",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1007/s10047-008-0403-x",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
pages = "45--51",
journal = "Journal of Artificial Organs",
issn = "1434-7229",
publisher = "Springer Japan",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Short-term biological safety of a photoelectric dye used as a component of retinal prostheses

AU - Okamoto, Kazuo

AU - Matsuo, Toshihiko

AU - Tamaki, Takayuki

AU - Uji, Akihito

AU - Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

PY - 2008/4

Y1 - 2008/4

N2 - We have designed a new type of retinal prosthesis with a photoelectric dye that transfers photon energy to generate electric potentials. The purpose of this study was to test the safety of a photoelectric dye, 2-[2-[4-(dibutylami no)phenyl]ethenyl]-3-carboxymethylbenzothiazolium bromide (NK-5962), used for retinal prostheses. The retinal cells, derived from chick neurosensory retinas at the 12-day embryonic stage, were a mixed population of retinal neurons and glial cells, and were cultured for 2 days either under protection from light or under continuous light exposure at 230 lux for 9 h daily in the presence of the photoelectric dye at varying concentrations (1.6 × 10-5, 1.6 × 10-6, and 1.6 × 10-7 M) to assess cell viability by staining live cells and dead cells. Dispersed retinal pigment epithelial cells at the same embryonic stage were incubated with the photoelectric dye at varying concentrations (6.6 × 10-5, 6.6 × 10-6, and 6.6 × 10-7 M) for 4 h under protection from light or under continuous light exposure at 320 lux to assess cytotoxicity by measuring the activity of lactate dehydrogenase leaking from cells. The majority of retinal cells were alive with only a small percentage of dead cells under the dark condition or the light condition in the presence or the absence of the photoelectric dye. The percentage of dead cells was significantly smaller at higher concentrations of the photoelectric dye (P = 0.0183, two-factor analysis of variance), while the percentage of dead cells was not significantly different between the dark condition and the light condition (P = 0.3102). Percent cytotoxicity values were negative, indicating protective effects in all groups of retinal pigment epithelial cells incubated with varying concentrations of the photoelectric dye. The photoelectric dye showed no cytotoxicity to chick retinal cells or retinal pigment epithelial cells on short-term exposure. In addition, this photoelectric dye might have protective effects on both types of cells.

AB - We have designed a new type of retinal prosthesis with a photoelectric dye that transfers photon energy to generate electric potentials. The purpose of this study was to test the safety of a photoelectric dye, 2-[2-[4-(dibutylami no)phenyl]ethenyl]-3-carboxymethylbenzothiazolium bromide (NK-5962), used for retinal prostheses. The retinal cells, derived from chick neurosensory retinas at the 12-day embryonic stage, were a mixed population of retinal neurons and glial cells, and were cultured for 2 days either under protection from light or under continuous light exposure at 230 lux for 9 h daily in the presence of the photoelectric dye at varying concentrations (1.6 × 10-5, 1.6 × 10-6, and 1.6 × 10-7 M) to assess cell viability by staining live cells and dead cells. Dispersed retinal pigment epithelial cells at the same embryonic stage were incubated with the photoelectric dye at varying concentrations (6.6 × 10-5, 6.6 × 10-6, and 6.6 × 10-7 M) for 4 h under protection from light or under continuous light exposure at 320 lux to assess cytotoxicity by measuring the activity of lactate dehydrogenase leaking from cells. The majority of retinal cells were alive with only a small percentage of dead cells under the dark condition or the light condition in the presence or the absence of the photoelectric dye. The percentage of dead cells was significantly smaller at higher concentrations of the photoelectric dye (P = 0.0183, two-factor analysis of variance), while the percentage of dead cells was not significantly different between the dark condition and the light condition (P = 0.3102). Percent cytotoxicity values were negative, indicating protective effects in all groups of retinal pigment epithelial cells incubated with varying concentrations of the photoelectric dye. The photoelectric dye showed no cytotoxicity to chick retinal cells or retinal pigment epithelial cells on short-term exposure. In addition, this photoelectric dye might have protective effects on both types of cells.

KW - Cytotoxicity

KW - Photoelectric dye

KW - Polyethylene film

KW - Retinal neurons

KW - Retinal pigment epithelial cells

KW - Retinal prosthesis

KW - Safety

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=42149175536&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=42149175536&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10047-008-0403-x

DO - 10.1007/s10047-008-0403-x

M3 - Article

C2 - 18414992

AN - SCOPUS:42149175536

VL - 11

SP - 45

EP - 51

JO - Journal of Artificial Organs

JF - Journal of Artificial Organs

SN - 1434-7229

IS - 1

ER -