Background/Aims: The influences of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy on the disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are still unclear. We therefore conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study to evaluate the safety of H. pylori eradication therapy for IBD patients. Methods: IBD patients with H. pylori eradication from 2005 to 2015 (eradication group) and control patients (non-eradication group; 2 paired IBD patients without H. pylori eradication matched with each eradicated patient) were included. IBD exacerbation (increased/additional IBD drug or IBD-associated hospitalization/surgery) and disease improvement based on the physicians' global assessment were investigated at baseline, and at 2 and 6 months after eradication or observation. Results: A total of 429 IBD (378 ulcerative colitis, 51 Crohn's disease) patients, comprising 144 patients in the eradication group and 285 patients in the non-eradication group, were enrolled at 25 institutions. IBD exacerbation was comparable between groups (eradication group: 8.3% at 2 months [odds ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-3.92; P=0.170], 11.8% at 6 months [odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-3.11; P=0.172]). Based on the physicians' global assessment at 2 months, none of the patients in the eradication group improved, whereas 3.2% of the patients in the non-eradication group improved (P=0.019). Multivariate analysis revealed that active disease at baseline, but not H. pylori eradication, was an independent factor for IBD exacerbation during 2 months' observation period. The overall eradication rate was 84.0%-comparable to previous reports in non-IBD patients. Conclusions: H. pylori eradication therapy does not alter the short-term disease activity of IBD.
- Helicobacter pylori eradication
- Proton pump inhibitor
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