Serum galectin-9 levels are elevated in the patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease

Yuko Kurose, Jun Wada, Motoko Kanzaki, Sanae Teshigawara, Atsuko Nakatsuka, Kazutoshi Murakami, Kentaro Inoue, Takahiro Terami, Akihiro Katayama, Mayu Watanabe, Chigusa Higuchi, Jun Eguchi, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Hirofumi Makino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces apoptosis in activated T helper 1 (T§ssub§H§esub§1) cells as a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3). Gal-9 also inhibits the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and hypertrophy in db/db mice, the hallmark of early diabetic nephropathy, by reversing the high glucose-induced up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as p27§ssup§Kip1§esup§ and p21§ssup§Cip1§esup§. Methods. We investigated the serum levels of Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes and various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n=182). Results: Serum Gal-9 levels in the patients with type 2 diabetes were 131.9 ± 105.4 pg/ml and Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels significantly and positively correlated with age (r=0.227, p=0.002), creatinine (r=0.175, p=0.018), urea nitrogen (r=0.162, p=0.028) and osmotic pressure (r=0.187, p=0.014) and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r=-0.188, p=0.011). Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels increased along with the progression of GFR categories of G1 to G4, and they were statistically significant by Jonckheere-Terpstra test (p=0.012). Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels remained similar levels in albuminuria stages of A1 to A3. Conclusion: The elevation of serum Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes is closely linked to GFR and they may be related to the alteration of the immune response and inflammation of the patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number23
JournalBMC Nephrology
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Galectins
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Serum
Mucin-3
G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Th1 Cells
Albuminuria
Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
Osmotic Pressure
G1 Phase
Diabetic Nephropathies
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Hypertrophy
Urea
Immunoglobulins
Creatinine
Up-Regulation
Nitrogen
Apoptosis

Keywords

  • Glomerular filtration
  • Inflammation
  • Kidney disease
  • Nephropathy
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

Cite this

Serum galectin-9 levels are elevated in the patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. / Kurose, Yuko; Wada, Jun; Kanzaki, Motoko; Teshigawara, Sanae; Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Murakami, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Kentaro; Terami, Takahiro; Katayama, Akihiro; Watanabe, Mayu; Higuchi, Chigusa; Eguchi, Jun; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Makino, Hirofumi.

In: BMC Nephrology, Vol. 14, No. 1, 23, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces apoptosis in activated T helper 1 (T§ssub§H§esub§1) cells as a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3). Gal-9 also inhibits the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and hypertrophy in db/db mice, the hallmark of early diabetic nephropathy, by reversing the high glucose-induced up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as p27§ssup§Kip1§esup§ and p21§ssup§Cip1§esup§. Methods. We investigated the serum levels of Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes and various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n=182). Results: Serum Gal-9 levels in the patients with type 2 diabetes were 131.9 ± 105.4 pg/ml and Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels significantly and positively correlated with age (r=0.227, p=0.002), creatinine (r=0.175, p=0.018), urea nitrogen (r=0.162, p=0.028) and osmotic pressure (r=0.187, p=0.014) and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r=-0.188, p=0.011). Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels increased along with the progression of GFR categories of G1 to G4, and they were statistically significant by Jonckheere-Terpstra test (p=0.012). Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels remained similar levels in albuminuria stages of A1 to A3. Conclusion: The elevation of serum Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes is closely linked to GFR and they may be related to the alteration of the immune response and inflammation of the patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD.",
keywords = "Glomerular filtration, Inflammation, Kidney disease, Nephropathy, Type 2 diabetes",
author = "Yuko Kurose and Jun Wada and Motoko Kanzaki and Sanae Teshigawara and Atsuko Nakatsuka and Kazutoshi Murakami and Kentaro Inoue and Takahiro Terami and Akihiro Katayama and Mayu Watanabe and Chigusa Higuchi and Jun Eguchi and Nobuyuki Miyatake and Hirofumi Makino",
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T1 - Serum galectin-9 levels are elevated in the patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease

AU - Kurose, Yuko

AU - Wada, Jun

AU - Kanzaki, Motoko

AU - Teshigawara, Sanae

AU - Nakatsuka, Atsuko

AU - Murakami, Kazutoshi

AU - Inoue, Kentaro

AU - Terami, Takahiro

AU - Katayama, Akihiro

AU - Watanabe, Mayu

AU - Higuchi, Chigusa

AU - Eguchi, Jun

AU - Miyatake, Nobuyuki

AU - Makino, Hirofumi

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Background: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces apoptosis in activated T helper 1 (T§ssub§H§esub§1) cells as a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3). Gal-9 also inhibits the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and hypertrophy in db/db mice, the hallmark of early diabetic nephropathy, by reversing the high glucose-induced up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as p27§ssup§Kip1§esup§ and p21§ssup§Cip1§esup§. Methods. We investigated the serum levels of Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes and various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n=182). Results: Serum Gal-9 levels in the patients with type 2 diabetes were 131.9 ± 105.4 pg/ml and Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels significantly and positively correlated with age (r=0.227, p=0.002), creatinine (r=0.175, p=0.018), urea nitrogen (r=0.162, p=0.028) and osmotic pressure (r=0.187, p=0.014) and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r=-0.188, p=0.011). Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels increased along with the progression of GFR categories of G1 to G4, and they were statistically significant by Jonckheere-Terpstra test (p=0.012). Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels remained similar levels in albuminuria stages of A1 to A3. Conclusion: The elevation of serum Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes is closely linked to GFR and they may be related to the alteration of the immune response and inflammation of the patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD.

AB - Background: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces apoptosis in activated T helper 1 (T§ssub§H§esub§1) cells as a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3). Gal-9 also inhibits the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and hypertrophy in db/db mice, the hallmark of early diabetic nephropathy, by reversing the high glucose-induced up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as p27§ssup§Kip1§esup§ and p21§ssup§Cip1§esup§. Methods. We investigated the serum levels of Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes and various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n=182). Results: Serum Gal-9 levels in the patients with type 2 diabetes were 131.9 ± 105.4 pg/ml and Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels significantly and positively correlated with age (r=0.227, p=0.002), creatinine (r=0.175, p=0.018), urea nitrogen (r=0.162, p=0.028) and osmotic pressure (r=0.187, p=0.014) and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r=-0.188, p=0.011). Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels increased along with the progression of GFR categories of G1 to G4, and they were statistically significant by Jonckheere-Terpstra test (p=0.012). Log§ssub§10§esub§Gal-9 levels remained similar levels in albuminuria stages of A1 to A3. Conclusion: The elevation of serum Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes is closely linked to GFR and they may be related to the alteration of the immune response and inflammation of the patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD.

KW - Glomerular filtration

KW - Inflammation

KW - Kidney disease

KW - Nephropathy

KW - Type 2 diabetes

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