The present study examined whether the self-reference effect occurred when memory retrieval was automatic. The process-dissociation procedure (e.g., Jacoby, 1991; Toth. Reingold, & Jacoby, 1994) was used to separate automatic and intentional, i.e., consciously controlled, components of memory in a word-stem completion task. In the learning phase, subjects were asked to rate trait words in one of the three ways of encoding: self-reference, semantic, and physical. Immediately after the phase, they performed an arithmetic problem for three minutes, and then were given the surprise word-stem recall task under an inclusion and exclusion performance conditions. Estimates derived from a process dissociation procedure showed the self-reference effect was found only in intentional memory, and not in automatic memory. Results therefore suggested that the self-reference effect to occur, intentional use of memory was necessary.
- Automatic and intentional memory
- Process-dissociation procedure
- Self-reference effect
ASJC Scopus subject areas