Search for supernova neutrino bursts at super-kamiokande

M. Ikeda, A. Takeda, Y. Fukuda, M. R. Vagins, K. Abe, T. Iida, K. Ishihara, J. Kameda, Yusuke Koshio, A. Minamino, C. Mitsuda, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, M. Nakahata, Y. Obayashi, H. Ogawa, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi & 123 others K. Ueshima, H. Watanabe, S. Yamada, I. Higuchi, C. Ishihara, M. Ishitsuka, T. Kajita, K. Kaneyuki, G. Mitsuka, S. Nakayama, H. Nishino, K. Okumura, C. Saji, Y. Takenaga, S. Clark, S. Desai, F. Dufour, E. Kearns, S. Likhoded, M. Litos, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, W. Wang, M. Goldhaber, D. Casper, J. P. Cravens, J. Dunmore, W. R. Kropp, D. W. Liu, S. Mine, C. Regis, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, K. S. Ganezer, J. Hill, W. E. Keig, J. S. Jang, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, K. Scholberg, N. Tanimoto, C. W. Walter, R. Wendell, R. W. Ellsworth, S. Tasaka, G. Guillian, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, M. D. Messier, Y. Hayato, A. K. Ichikawa, T. Ishida, T. Ishii, T. Iwashita, T. Kobayashi, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, K. Nitta, Y. Oyama, Y. Totsuka, A. T. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, K. Hiraide, H. Maesaka, T. Nakaya, K. Nishikawa, T. Sasaki, S. Yamamoto, M. Yokoyama, T. J. Haines, S. Dazeley, S. Hatakeyama, R. Svoboda, G. W. Sullivan, D. Turcan, A. Habig, T. Sato, Y. Itow, T. Koike, T. Tanaka, C. K. Jung, T. Kato, K. Kobayashi, M. Malek, C. Mcgrew, A. Sarrat, R. Terri, C. Yanagisawa, N. Tamura, Y. Idehara, Makoto Sakuda, M. Sugihara, Y. Kuno, M. Yoshida, S. B. Kim, B. S. Yang, J. Yoo, T. Ishizuka, H. Okazawa, Y. Choi, H. K. Seo, Y. Gando, T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, Y. Furuse, H. Ishii, K. Nishijima, Hirokazu Ishino, Y. Watanabe, M. Koshiba, S. Chen, Z. Deng, Y. Liu, D. Kielczewska, J. Zalipska, H. Berns, R. Gran, K. K. Shiraishi, A. Stachyra, E. Thrane, K. Washburn, R. J. Wilkes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

89 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report the results of a search for neutrino bursts from supernova explosions using the Super-Kamiokande detector. Super-Kamiokande is sensitive to core-collapse supernova explosions via observation of their neutrino emissions. The expected number of events comprising such a burst is ∼104, and the average energy of the neutrinos is in the range of a few tens of MeV for a core-collapse supernova explosion at a typical distance in our galaxy (10 kpc); this strong signal means that the detection efficiency anywhere within our galaxy and well past the Magellanic Clouds should be 100%. We examined a data set taken from 1996 May to 2001 July, and from 2002 December to 2005 October, corresponding to 2589.2 live days. However, there is no evidence of such a supernova explosion during the data-taking period. The 90% CL. upper limit on the rate of core-collapse supernova explosions out to distances of 100 kpc is found to be 0.32 SN yr-1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)519-524
Number of pages6
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume669
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2007

Fingerprint

supernovae
explosions
explosion
bursts
neutrinos
galaxies
Magellanic clouds
detectors
energy

Keywords

  • Galaxies: individual (Milky Way, LMC, SMC)
  • Neutrinos
  • Supernovae: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Ikeda, M., Takeda, A., Fukuda, Y., Vagins, M. R., Abe, K., Iida, T., ... Wilkes, R. J. (2007). Search for supernova neutrino bursts at super-kamiokande. Astrophysical Journal, 669(1), 519-524. https://doi.org/10.1086/521547

Search for supernova neutrino bursts at super-kamiokande. / Ikeda, M.; Takeda, A.; Fukuda, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Abe, K.; Iida, T.; Ishihara, K.; Kameda, J.; Koshio, Yusuke; Minamino, A.; Mitsuda, C.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Obayashi, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Yamada, S.; Higuchi, I.; Ishihara, C.; Ishitsuka, M.; Kajita, T.; Kaneyuki, K.; Mitsuka, G.; Nakayama, S.; Nishino, H.; Okumura, K.; Saji, C.; Takenaga, Y.; Clark, S.; Desai, S.; Dufour, F.; Kearns, E.; Likhoded, S.; Litos, M.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Wang, W.; Goldhaber, M.; Casper, D.; Cravens, J. P.; Dunmore, J.; Kropp, W. R.; Liu, D. W.; Mine, S.; Regis, C.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Scholberg, K.; Tanimoto, N.; Walter, C. W.; Wendell, R.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Tasaka, S.; Guillian, G.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Messier, M. D.; Hayato, Y.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwashita, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nitta, K.; Oyama, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Suzuki, A. T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hiraide, K.; Maesaka, H.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Sasaki, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Haines, T. J.; Dazeley, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Svoboda, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Turcan, D.; Habig, A.; Sato, T.; Itow, Y.; Koike, T.; Tanaka, T.; Jung, C. K.; Kato, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Malek, M.; Mcgrew, C.; Sarrat, A.; Terri, R.; Yanagisawa, C.; Tamura, N.; Idehara, Y.; Sakuda, Makoto; Sugihara, M.; Kuno, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, S. B.; Yang, B. S.; Yoo, J.; Ishizuka, T.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Seo, H. K.; Gando, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Inoue, K.; Furuse, Y.; Ishii, H.; Nishijima, K.; Ishino, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Y.; Koshiba, M.; Chen, S.; Deng, Z.; Liu, Y.; Kielczewska, D.; Zalipska, J.; Berns, H.; Gran, R.; Shiraishi, K. K.; Stachyra, A.; Thrane, E.; Washburn, K.; Wilkes, R. J.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 669, No. 1, 01.11.2007, p. 519-524.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ikeda, M, Takeda, A, Fukuda, Y, Vagins, MR, Abe, K, Iida, T, Ishihara, K, Kameda, J, Koshio, Y, Minamino, A, Mitsuda, C, Miura, M, Moriyama, S, Nakahata, M, Obayashi, Y, Ogawa, H, Sekiya, H, Shiozawa, M, Suzuki, Y, Takeuchi, Y, Ueshima, K, Watanabe, H, Yamada, S, Higuchi, I, Ishihara, C, Ishitsuka, M, Kajita, T, Kaneyuki, K, Mitsuka, G, Nakayama, S, Nishino, H, Okumura, K, Saji, C, Takenaga, Y, Clark, S, Desai, S, Dufour, F, Kearns, E, Likhoded, S, Litos, M, Raaf, JL, Stone, JL, Sulak, LR, Wang, W, Goldhaber, M, Casper, D, Cravens, JP, Dunmore, J, Kropp, WR, Liu, DW, Mine, S, Regis, C, Smy, MB, Sobel, HW, Ganezer, KS, Hill, J, Keig, WE, Jang, JS, Kim, JY, Lim, IT, Scholberg, K, Tanimoto, N, Walter, CW, Wendell, R, Ellsworth, RW, Tasaka, S, Guillian, G, Learned, JG, Matsuno, S, Messier, MD, Hayato, Y, Ichikawa, AK, Ishida, T, Ishii, T, Iwashita, T, Kobayashi, T, Nakadaira, T, Nakamura, K, Nitta, K, Oyama, Y, Totsuka, Y, Suzuki, AT, Hasegawa, M, Hiraide, K, Maesaka, H, Nakaya, T, Nishikawa, K, Sasaki, T, Yamamoto, S, Yokoyama, M, Haines, TJ, Dazeley, S, Hatakeyama, S, Svoboda, R, Sullivan, GW, Turcan, D, Habig, A, Sato, T, Itow, Y, Koike, T, Tanaka, T, Jung, CK, Kato, T, Kobayashi, K, Malek, M, Mcgrew, C, Sarrat, A, Terri, R, Yanagisawa, C, Tamura, N, Idehara, Y, Sakuda, M, Sugihara, M, Kuno, Y, Yoshida, M, Kim, SB, Yang, BS, Yoo, J, Ishizuka, T, Okazawa, H, Choi, Y, Seo, HK, Gando, Y, Hasegawa, T, Inoue, K, Furuse, Y, Ishii, H, Nishijima, K, Ishino, H, Watanabe, Y, Koshiba, M, Chen, S, Deng, Z, Liu, Y, Kielczewska, D, Zalipska, J, Berns, H, Gran, R, Shiraishi, KK, Stachyra, A, Thrane, E, Washburn, K & Wilkes, RJ 2007, 'Search for supernova neutrino bursts at super-kamiokande', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 669, no. 1, pp. 519-524. https://doi.org/10.1086/521547
Ikeda M, Takeda A, Fukuda Y, Vagins MR, Abe K, Iida T et al. Search for supernova neutrino bursts at super-kamiokande. Astrophysical Journal. 2007 Nov 1;669(1):519-524. https://doi.org/10.1086/521547
Ikeda, M. ; Takeda, A. ; Fukuda, Y. ; Vagins, M. R. ; Abe, K. ; Iida, T. ; Ishihara, K. ; Kameda, J. ; Koshio, Yusuke ; Minamino, A. ; Mitsuda, C. ; Miura, M. ; Moriyama, S. ; Nakahata, M. ; Obayashi, Y. ; Ogawa, H. ; Sekiya, H. ; Shiozawa, M. ; Suzuki, Y. ; Takeuchi, Y. ; Ueshima, K. ; Watanabe, H. ; Yamada, S. ; Higuchi, I. ; Ishihara, C. ; Ishitsuka, M. ; Kajita, T. ; Kaneyuki, K. ; Mitsuka, G. ; Nakayama, S. ; Nishino, H. ; Okumura, K. ; Saji, C. ; Takenaga, Y. ; Clark, S. ; Desai, S. ; Dufour, F. ; Kearns, E. ; Likhoded, S. ; Litos, M. ; Raaf, J. L. ; Stone, J. L. ; Sulak, L. R. ; Wang, W. ; Goldhaber, M. ; Casper, D. ; Cravens, J. P. ; Dunmore, J. ; Kropp, W. R. ; Liu, D. W. ; Mine, S. ; Regis, C. ; Smy, M. B. ; Sobel, H. W. ; Ganezer, K. S. ; Hill, J. ; Keig, W. E. ; Jang, J. S. ; Kim, J. Y. ; Lim, I. T. ; Scholberg, K. ; Tanimoto, N. ; Walter, C. W. ; Wendell, R. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Tasaka, S. ; Guillian, G. ; Learned, J. G. ; Matsuno, S. ; Messier, M. D. ; Hayato, Y. ; Ichikawa, A. K. ; Ishida, T. ; Ishii, T. ; Iwashita, T. ; Kobayashi, T. ; Nakadaira, T. ; Nakamura, K. ; Nitta, K. ; Oyama, Y. ; Totsuka, Y. ; Suzuki, A. T. ; Hasegawa, M. ; Hiraide, K. ; Maesaka, H. ; Nakaya, T. ; Nishikawa, K. ; Sasaki, T. ; Yamamoto, S. ; Yokoyama, M. ; Haines, T. J. ; Dazeley, S. ; Hatakeyama, S. ; Svoboda, R. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Turcan, D. ; Habig, A. ; Sato, T. ; Itow, Y. ; Koike, T. ; Tanaka, T. ; Jung, C. K. ; Kato, T. ; Kobayashi, K. ; Malek, M. ; Mcgrew, C. ; Sarrat, A. ; Terri, R. ; Yanagisawa, C. ; Tamura, N. ; Idehara, Y. ; Sakuda, Makoto ; Sugihara, M. ; Kuno, Y. ; Yoshida, M. ; Kim, S. B. ; Yang, B. S. ; Yoo, J. ; Ishizuka, T. ; Okazawa, H. ; Choi, Y. ; Seo, H. K. ; Gando, Y. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Inoue, K. ; Furuse, Y. ; Ishii, H. ; Nishijima, K. ; Ishino, Hirokazu ; Watanabe, Y. ; Koshiba, M. ; Chen, S. ; Deng, Z. ; Liu, Y. ; Kielczewska, D. ; Zalipska, J. ; Berns, H. ; Gran, R. ; Shiraishi, K. K. ; Stachyra, A. ; Thrane, E. ; Washburn, K. ; Wilkes, R. J. / Search for supernova neutrino bursts at super-kamiokande. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2007 ; Vol. 669, No. 1. pp. 519-524.
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title = "Search for supernova neutrino bursts at super-kamiokande",
abstract = "We report the results of a search for neutrino bursts from supernova explosions using the Super-Kamiokande detector. Super-Kamiokande is sensitive to core-collapse supernova explosions via observation of their neutrino emissions. The expected number of events comprising such a burst is ∼104, and the average energy of the neutrinos is in the range of a few tens of MeV for a core-collapse supernova explosion at a typical distance in our galaxy (10 kpc); this strong signal means that the detection efficiency anywhere within our galaxy and well past the Magellanic Clouds should be 100{\%}. We examined a data set taken from 1996 May to 2001 July, and from 2002 December to 2005 October, corresponding to 2589.2 live days. However, there is no evidence of such a supernova explosion during the data-taking period. The 90{\%} CL. upper limit on the rate of core-collapse supernova explosions out to distances of 100 kpc is found to be 0.32 SN yr-1.",
keywords = "Galaxies: individual (Milky Way, LMC, SMC), Neutrinos, Supernovae: general",
author = "M. Ikeda and A. Takeda and Y. Fukuda and Vagins, {M. R.} and K. Abe and T. Iida and K. Ishihara and J. Kameda and Yusuke Koshio and A. Minamino and C. Mitsuda and M. Miura and S. Moriyama and M. Nakahata and Y. Obayashi and H. Ogawa and H. Sekiya and M. Shiozawa and Y. Suzuki and Y. Takeuchi and K. Ueshima and H. Watanabe and S. Yamada and I. Higuchi and C. Ishihara and M. Ishitsuka and T. Kajita and K. Kaneyuki and G. Mitsuka and S. Nakayama and H. Nishino and K. Okumura and C. Saji and Y. Takenaga and S. Clark and S. Desai and F. Dufour and E. Kearns and S. Likhoded and M. Litos and Raaf, {J. L.} and Stone, {J. L.} and Sulak, {L. R.} and W. Wang and M. Goldhaber and D. Casper and Cravens, {J. P.} and J. Dunmore and Kropp, {W. R.} and Liu, {D. W.} and S. Mine and C. Regis and Smy, {M. B.} and Sobel, {H. W.} and Ganezer, {K. S.} and J. Hill and Keig, {W. E.} and Jang, {J. S.} and Kim, {J. Y.} and Lim, {I. T.} and K. Scholberg and N. Tanimoto and Walter, {C. W.} and R. Wendell and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and S. Tasaka and G. Guillian and Learned, {J. G.} and S. Matsuno and Messier, {M. D.} and Y. Hayato and Ichikawa, {A. K.} and T. Ishida and T. Ishii and T. Iwashita and T. Kobayashi and T. Nakadaira and K. Nakamura and K. Nitta and Y. Oyama and Y. Totsuka and Suzuki, {A. T.} and M. Hasegawa and K. Hiraide and H. Maesaka and T. Nakaya and K. Nishikawa and T. Sasaki and S. Yamamoto and M. Yokoyama and Haines, {T. J.} and S. Dazeley and S. Hatakeyama and R. Svoboda and Sullivan, {G. W.} and D. Turcan and A. Habig and T. Sato and Y. Itow and T. Koike and T. Tanaka and Jung, {C. K.} and T. Kato and K. Kobayashi and M. Malek and C. Mcgrew and A. Sarrat and R. Terri and C. Yanagisawa and N. Tamura and Y. Idehara and Makoto Sakuda and M. Sugihara and Y. Kuno and M. Yoshida and Kim, {S. B.} and Yang, {B. S.} and J. Yoo and T. Ishizuka and H. Okazawa and Y. Choi and Seo, {H. K.} and Y. Gando and T. Hasegawa and K. Inoue and Y. Furuse and H. Ishii and K. Nishijima and Hirokazu Ishino and Y. Watanabe and M. Koshiba and S. Chen and Z. Deng and Y. Liu and D. Kielczewska and J. Zalipska and H. Berns and R. Gran and Shiraishi, {K. K.} and A. Stachyra and E. Thrane and K. Washburn and Wilkes, {R. J.}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Search for supernova neutrino bursts at super-kamiokande

AU - Ikeda, M.

AU - Takeda, A.

AU - Fukuda, Y.

AU - Vagins, M. R.

AU - Abe, K.

AU - Iida, T.

AU - Ishihara, K.

AU - Kameda, J.

AU - Koshio, Yusuke

AU - Minamino, A.

AU - Mitsuda, C.

AU - Miura, M.

AU - Moriyama, S.

AU - Nakahata, M.

AU - Obayashi, Y.

AU - Ogawa, H.

AU - Sekiya, H.

AU - Shiozawa, M.

AU - Suzuki, Y.

AU - Takeuchi, Y.

AU - Ueshima, K.

AU - Watanabe, H.

AU - Yamada, S.

AU - Higuchi, I.

AU - Ishihara, C.

AU - Ishitsuka, M.

AU - Kajita, T.

AU - Kaneyuki, K.

AU - Mitsuka, G.

AU - Nakayama, S.

AU - Nishino, H.

AU - Okumura, K.

AU - Saji, C.

AU - Takenaga, Y.

AU - Clark, S.

AU - Desai, S.

AU - Dufour, F.

AU - Kearns, E.

AU - Likhoded, S.

AU - Litos, M.

AU - Raaf, J. L.

AU - Stone, J. L.

AU - Sulak, L. R.

AU - Wang, W.

AU - Goldhaber, M.

AU - Casper, D.

AU - Cravens, J. P.

AU - Dunmore, J.

AU - Kropp, W. R.

AU - Liu, D. W.

AU - Mine, S.

AU - Regis, C.

AU - Smy, M. B.

AU - Sobel, H. W.

AU - Ganezer, K. S.

AU - Hill, J.

AU - Keig, W. E.

AU - Jang, J. S.

AU - Kim, J. Y.

AU - Lim, I. T.

AU - Scholberg, K.

AU - Tanimoto, N.

AU - Walter, C. W.

AU - Wendell, R.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Tasaka, S.

AU - Guillian, G.

AU - Learned, J. G.

AU - Matsuno, S.

AU - Messier, M. D.

AU - Hayato, Y.

AU - Ichikawa, A. K.

AU - Ishida, T.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Iwashita, T.

AU - Kobayashi, T.

AU - Nakadaira, T.

AU - Nakamura, K.

AU - Nitta, K.

AU - Oyama, Y.

AU - Totsuka, Y.

AU - Suzuki, A. T.

AU - Hasegawa, M.

AU - Hiraide, K.

AU - Maesaka, H.

AU - Nakaya, T.

AU - Nishikawa, K.

AU - Sasaki, T.

AU - Yamamoto, S.

AU - Yokoyama, M.

AU - Haines, T. J.

AU - Dazeley, S.

AU - Hatakeyama, S.

AU - Svoboda, R.

AU - Sullivan, G. W.

AU - Turcan, D.

AU - Habig, A.

AU - Sato, T.

AU - Itow, Y.

AU - Koike, T.

AU - Tanaka, T.

AU - Jung, C. K.

AU - Kato, T.

AU - Kobayashi, K.

AU - Malek, M.

AU - Mcgrew, C.

AU - Sarrat, A.

AU - Terri, R.

AU - Yanagisawa, C.

AU - Tamura, N.

AU - Idehara, Y.

AU - Sakuda, Makoto

AU - Sugihara, M.

AU - Kuno, Y.

AU - Yoshida, M.

AU - Kim, S. B.

AU - Yang, B. S.

AU - Yoo, J.

AU - Ishizuka, T.

AU - Okazawa, H.

AU - Choi, Y.

AU - Seo, H. K.

AU - Gando, Y.

AU - Hasegawa, T.

AU - Inoue, K.

AU - Furuse, Y.

AU - Ishii, H.

AU - Nishijima, K.

AU - Ishino, Hirokazu

AU - Watanabe, Y.

AU - Koshiba, M.

AU - Chen, S.

AU - Deng, Z.

AU - Liu, Y.

AU - Kielczewska, D.

AU - Zalipska, J.

AU - Berns, H.

AU - Gran, R.

AU - Shiraishi, K. K.

AU - Stachyra, A.

AU - Thrane, E.

AU - Washburn, K.

AU - Wilkes, R. J.

PY - 2007/11/1

Y1 - 2007/11/1

N2 - We report the results of a search for neutrino bursts from supernova explosions using the Super-Kamiokande detector. Super-Kamiokande is sensitive to core-collapse supernova explosions via observation of their neutrino emissions. The expected number of events comprising such a burst is ∼104, and the average energy of the neutrinos is in the range of a few tens of MeV for a core-collapse supernova explosion at a typical distance in our galaxy (10 kpc); this strong signal means that the detection efficiency anywhere within our galaxy and well past the Magellanic Clouds should be 100%. We examined a data set taken from 1996 May to 2001 July, and from 2002 December to 2005 October, corresponding to 2589.2 live days. However, there is no evidence of such a supernova explosion during the data-taking period. The 90% CL. upper limit on the rate of core-collapse supernova explosions out to distances of 100 kpc is found to be 0.32 SN yr-1.

AB - We report the results of a search for neutrino bursts from supernova explosions using the Super-Kamiokande detector. Super-Kamiokande is sensitive to core-collapse supernova explosions via observation of their neutrino emissions. The expected number of events comprising such a burst is ∼104, and the average energy of the neutrinos is in the range of a few tens of MeV for a core-collapse supernova explosion at a typical distance in our galaxy (10 kpc); this strong signal means that the detection efficiency anywhere within our galaxy and well past the Magellanic Clouds should be 100%. We examined a data set taken from 1996 May to 2001 July, and from 2002 December to 2005 October, corresponding to 2589.2 live days. However, there is no evidence of such a supernova explosion during the data-taking period. The 90% CL. upper limit on the rate of core-collapse supernova explosions out to distances of 100 kpc is found to be 0.32 SN yr-1.

KW - Galaxies: individual (Milky Way, LMC, SMC)

KW - Neutrinos

KW - Supernovae: general

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=39049152843&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=39049152843&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1086/521547

DO - 10.1086/521547

M3 - Article

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SP - 519

EP - 524

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1

ER -