Scaling up software birthmarks using fuzzy hashing

Takehiro Tsuzaki, Teruaki Yamamoto, Haruaki Tamada, Akito Monden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


To detect the software theft, software birthmarks have been proposed. Software birthmark systems extract software birthmarks, which are native characteristics of software, from binary programs, and compare them by computing the similarity between birthmarks. This paper proposes a new procedure for scaling up the birthmark systems. While conventional birthmark systems are composed of the birthmark extraction phase and the birthmark comparison phase, the proposed method adds two new phases between extraction and comparison, namely, compression phase, which employs fuzzy hashing, and pre-comparison phase, which aims to increase distinction property of birthmarks. The proposed method enables us to reduce the required time in the comparison phase, so that it can be applied to detect software theft among many larger scale software products. From an experimental evaluation, the authors found that the proposed method significantly reduces the comparison time, and keeps the distinction performance, which is one of the important properties of the birthmark. Also, the preservation performance is acceptable when the threshold value is properly set.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-102
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Software Innovation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2017


  • Fuzzy hashing
  • Preprocessing
  • Software birthmark
  • Software theft

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Artificial Intelligence

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