We intended to investigate whether muscle and adipose masses were associated with prognosis among patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were undergoing chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). We retrospectively explored data of patients with stage III NSCLC who underwent definitive CCRT (≥ 60 Gy) between January 2004 and March 2018 at our hospital. We examined the relationship of overall survival (OS) with body mass index (BMI), skeletal muscle index (SMI), psoas muscle index (PMI), visceral adipose tissue index (VAI), subcutaneous adipose tissue index (SAI), and visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR) using log-rank tests for the univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazard models for the multivariate analysis. Overall, 16, 32, and 12 patients had stage IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC NSCLC, respectively. The total radiotherapy dose ranged from 60 Gy/30 fractions to 66 Gy/33 fractions. In the univariate analysis, the performance status (PS), BMI, and SMI were associated with OS, whereas the PMI, VAI, SAI, and VSR were not. In the multivariate analysis, the PS and SMI were associated with OS. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 2.91 and 1.28–6.64 for PS, and 2.36 and 1.15–4.85 for SMI, respectively. The 1, 3, and 5-year OS rates were 92.1%, 59.6%, and 51.0% in patients with high SMI, and 63.6%, 53.8%, and 17.9% in patients with low SMI, respectively. The SMI correlated with prognosis in our study population, whereas adipose mass did not. Therefore, sarcopenia should be considered while predicting the OS in such patients.
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