Salvage surgery for local recurrence after carbon ion radiotherapy for patients with lung cancer

Teruaki Mizobuchi, Naoyoshi Yamamoto, Mio Nakajima, Masayuki Baba, Kentaro Miyoshi, Haruhiko Nakayama, Syun ichi Watanabe, Ryoichi Katoh, Tadasu Kohno, Mitsuhiro Kamiyoshihara, Wataru Nishio, Tadashi Kamada, Takehiko Fujisawa, Ichiro Yoshino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) has been expected to be an alternative for surgery for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and adopted as the second-best choice even in operable patients although local recurrence after CIRT is sometimes experienced. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic data, perioperative courses and therapeutic outcomes of patients who underwent salvage resection for local recurrence after CIRT. METHODS: From November 1994 to February 2012, CIRT was applied for 602 c-T1/T2/T3N0M0 NSCLC lesions of 599 patients at the National Institute of Radiological Science. A total of 95 (16%) patients were diagnosed as having local recurrence, of whom 12 underwent salvage surgeries. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: There were 7 men and 5 women (mean age, 63 ± 7.4 years). The clinical stages upon initial presentation with NSCLC were as follows: 4 IA, 7 IB and 1 IIB. All the patients were operable, but refused surgery and underwent CIRT. The median progression-free survival time after CIRT was 20 months (range, 7.1-77 months), and salvage surgery was performed at a median of 24 months (range, 9-78 months) after CIRT. All surgeries were successfully performed without any significant CIRT-related adhesions during the surgery, resulting in no mortality or Clavien-Dindo grade 3-4 postoperative complications. However, the distribution of pathological stages was as follows: 4 IA, 3 IB, 2 IIB, 2 IIIA and 1 IV, which included 6 upstages from the clinical stages before CIRT. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival after the salvage surgery showed that the 3-year survival rate was 82%. CONCLUSIONS: The dose intensity of CIRT spared the hilum of the lungs and parietal pleura, none of the patients developed adhesions outside of the radiation field, such that the salvage surgeries for local recurrence after CIRT were safe and feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberezv348
Pages (from-to)1503-1509
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2016


  • Carbon ion radiotherapy
  • Local recurrence
  • Lung cancer
  • Pulmonary resection
  • Salvage surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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