Purpose: Intracranial hemorrhage following hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) is a rare but potentially fatal complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Staged angioplasty (SAP) is a two-stage form of CAS that can prevent the abrupt increase of cerebral blood flow. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of SAP. Methods: One hundred thirty-four patients who underwent CAS for high-grade carotid artery stenosis between January 2010 and December 2018 were enrolled. Patients who showed severe impairment of hemodynamic reserve in 123I-IMP SPECT with acetazolamide received SAP (SAP group), while the others received regular CAS (RS group). Results: Twenty-six (19.4%) patients at risk for HPS received SAP. HPS was not observed in either group. Diffusion-weighted image (DWI)-positive lesions on postoperative MRI were observed in 56 (52.3%) cases in the RS group and 16 (64.0%) cases in the SAP group. Symptomatic procedure-related complications occurred in 5 (4.6%) cases in the RS group and 1 (3.8%) case in the SAP group. These differences were not statistically significant. Modified Rankin Scale score had declined 30 days after discharge in 4 (3.0%) cases. Distal filter protection was significantly correlated to the occurrence of new DWI-positive lesions. Conclusions: For patients at high risk of HPS, SAP was a reasonable treatment strategy to prevent HPS. SAP did not increase the rate of DWI-positive lesions or procedure-related complications compared with regular CAS.
- Carotid artery stenting
- Hyperperfusion syndrome
- Staged angioplasty
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine