Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary metallic biliary stent placement with tract embolization in patients with massive ascites. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction and massive ascites (age range, 4479 y; median age, 59 y) were treated with primary percutaneous stent placement with tract embolization. These patients were unsuitable candidates for endoscopic intervention. Etiologies of biliary obstruction were gastric cancer with hilar nodal metastases (n = 9), pancreatic carcinoma (n = 5), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1), and gallbladder carcinoma (n = 1). Eight patients had nonhilar lesions and the remaining eight had hilar lesions. Percutaneous accesses to the biliary system and stent placements were performed in a one-step procedure, and catheters were removed with tract embolization with metallic coils. Results: Stent placement and tract embolization were successful in all patients, without external drainage catheters left in place. Significant reduction of serum bilirubin level was observed in 14 patients (87.5%). No bile peritonitis or intraperitoneal hemorrhage occurred. Major complications included postprocedural cholangitis (12.5%), bloody bowel discharge (6.2%), and right pleural effusion (25.0%). One patient who died 19 days after intervention was deemed to represent a procedure-related mortality. During the survival period (range, 19175 d; median, 66 d), stent occlusion was noted in two patients at 6 and 159 days after the procedure. Primary stent patency was achieved in 14 patients (87.5%). Conclusions: Primary biliary stent placement with tract embolization is technically safe and offers an effective palliative treatment option for patients with malignant biliary obstruction and massive ascites when endoscopic intervention is not possible.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine