We conducted a multicenter study on anti-programmed cell death-1 monoclonal antibodies (anti-PD-1 mAbs) before/after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for Hodgkin lymphoma. Anti-PD-1 mAbs were administered to 25 patients before allo-HCT and to 20 after allo-HCT. In pre-allo-HCT setting, the median interval from the last administration to allo-HCT was 59 days. After allo-HCT, 12 patients developed non-infectious febrile syndrome requiring high-dose corticosteroid. The cumulative incidences of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) were 47.1%. Eight patients who had GvHD prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) had less frequent aGvHD (grade II–IV, 14.6% versus 58.8%; P = 0.086). The 1 year overall survival (OS), relapse/progression, and non-relapse mortality rates were 81.3%, 27.9%, and 8.4%. In post-allo-HCT setting, the median interval from allo-HCT to the first administration was 589 days. The overall and complete response rates were 75% and 40%. At 100 days after anti-PD-1 therapy, the cumulative incidences of grade II–IV aGvHD, moderate-to-severe chronic GvHD, and grade 3–4 immune-related toxicity were 15.0%, 30.0%, and 30.0%. While the 1 year relapse/progression rate was 47.4%, the 1 year OS probability was 89.7%. In conclusion, immune-related complications were frequent despite modifications of GvHD prophylaxis or anti-PD-1 mAb dosing. In anti-PD-1-mAb-pretreated patients, PTCy-based GvHD prophylaxis may be effective.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- Immune checkpoint inhibitor
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