An increase in extracellular Ca2+ induces growth arrest and differentiation of human keratinocytes in culture. We examined possible involvement of S100C/A11 in this growth regulation. On exposure of the cells to high Ca2+ S100C/A11 was specifically phosphorylated at 10Thr and 94Ser. Phosphorylation facilitated the binding of S100C/A11 to nucleolin, resulting in nuclear translocation of S100C/A11. In nuclei, S100C/A11 liberated Sp1/3 from nucleolin. The resulting free Sp1/3 transcriptionally activated p21CIP1/WAF1, a representative negative regulator of cell growth. Introduction of anti-S100C/A11 antibody into the cells largely abolished the growth inhibition induced by Ca2+ and the induction of p21CIP/WAF1. In the human epidermis, S100C/A11 was detected in nuclei of differentiating cells in the suprabasal layers, but not in nuclei of proliferating cells in the basal layer. These results indicate that S100C/A11 is a key mediator of the Ca2+-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes in culture, and that it may be possibly involved in the growth regulation in vivo as well.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology