Paclitaxel is one of the most extensively used anticancer agents, however, its use is often limited by severe hypersensitivity reactions, including respiratory distress, bronchospasm, and hypotension, which can occur despite premedication with dexamethasone and histamine H1 and H2 antagonists. The present study was designed to determine the mechanisms of paclitaxel hypersensitivity. In rats, paclitaxel (15 mg/kg, intravenously) caused a marked increase in pulmonary vascular permeability and edema. Pa O2 decreased, whereas PaCO2 increased, transiently after paclitaxel injection. The paclitaxel-induced pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability was blocked by dexamethasone but not by histamine H 1 or H2 antagonists. Paclitaxel increased the vascular permeability in lungs of mast cell-deficient rats Ws/Ws-/- to almost the similar extent as that elicited in wild-type rats. On the other hand, the paclitaxel-induced pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability was reversed by sensory denervation with capsaicin or pretreatment with LY303870 and SR48968, NK 1 and NK2 antagonists, respectively. Consistent with these findings, a marked elevation of sensory neuropeptides such as substance P, neurokinin A, and calcitonin gene-related peptide was observed in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after paclitaxel injection. These findings suggest that sensory nerves rather than mast cells are implicated in the etiology of paclitaxel hypersensitivity.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2004|
- Sensory nerve
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine